Overview

Early stress in immature neonates, both animal and human, has the potential for long-term effects. Medical care of infants born prematurely at very low gestational age (below 33 weeks gestation) involves repeated exposure to noxious procedures, at a time of very rapid brain development and programming of stress systems.

Pain in biologically immature neonates is developmentally “unexpected” inducing numerous physiologic, endocrine and behavioral changes that may contribute to altered brain development and stress regulation - affecting neurodevelopment, ability to self-regulate behaviorally and physiologically, as well as altering multiple aspects of attention, learning and memory. These difficulties may impact the infant's adjustment to the environment, parent-infant interaction, behavior and later academic achievement; however the etiology is largely unknown.

Using a transdisciplinary, biobehavioural approach we have gained new knowledge about pain reactivity, relationships between response systems in premature compared to healthy term born infants, and increased understanding of mechanisms contributing to altered neurodevelopment and internalizing behaviors in these fragile children.

Publications

Family integrated care: Very preterm neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months
Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Synnes, A.R. and Petrie, J. and Grunau, R.E. and Church, P. and Kelly, E. and Moddemann, D. and Ye, X. and Lee, S.K. and O{'}Brien, K.
DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-321055
2022

Pharmacologic Analgesia and Sedation in Neonates
Clinics in Perinatology
McPherson, C. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.clp.2021.11.014
2022

Proceedings of the 13th International Newborn Brain Conference: Neuroprotection strategies in the neonate
Journal of neonatal-perinatal medicine
Abou Mehrem, A. and Al Awad, E. and Anninck, K. and Au-Young, S. and Aydinol, N. and Bartmann, P. and Benders, M. and Benlamri, A. and Bolderheij, L. and Celik, Y. and Chan, N. and Chau, C. and Chau, V. and Chen, X. and Chetcuti Ganado, C. and Coetser, A. and Cools, F. and Da Rocha, G. and Deigner, H.-P. and Dereymaeker, A. and Deshmukh, L. and Domonoske, R. and Dossani, S. and Dsouza, J.M. and El Gamal, M. and Eshemokhai, P. and Esser, M. and Fiedrich, E. and Franz, A. and Ghosh, A. and Groenendaal, F. and Grunau, R.E. and Venkata, S.K.R.G. and Hamitoglu, S. and Hellstr{\"o}m-Westas, L. and Irvine, L. and Jansen, K. and Javadyan, A. and Jenkin, G. and Kamanga, N. and Kaur, N. and Keles, E. and Keller, M. and Kelly, E. and Kesting, S.J. and Kgwadi, D. and Kim, B. and Kohl, M. and Kowal, D. and Kricitober, J.D. and Leijser, L. and LePine, M. and Lim, Y.-P. and Lodha, A. and Londhe, A. and Ly, L. and Maes, E. and Malhotra, A. and Marlow, N. and Mathew, J.L. and McDonald, C. and McLean, M. and Metcalfe, C. and Meyer, R. and Miller, S.P. and Miller, S. and Mogajane, T. and Mohammad, K. and Momin, S. and Montpetit, J. and Mukiza, N. and Murthy, P. and Scott, J.N. and Nakibuuka, V. and Nakwa, F. and Naulaers, G. and Noort, J. and Ntuli, N. and Ondongo-Ezhet, C. and Paul, R. and Pepper, M. and Plum, A. and Rombough, B. and Saugstad, O. and Scotland, J. and Scott, J. and Seake, K. and Sebunya, R. and Selvanathan, T. and Sepeng, L. and Simsek, H. and Steins-Rang, C. and Stonestreet, B. and Tang, S. and Taskin, E. and Thewissen, L. and Thomas, S. and Thomas, R. and van Kwawegen, A. and van Rensburg, J. and Velaphi, S. and Wu, Y. and Yaman, A. and Yapicioglu-Yildizdas, H. and Yawno, T. and Zaki, P. and Zein, H. and Zhou, L.
DOI: 10.3233/NPM-229003
2022

Brain Development and Maternal Behavior in Relation to Cognitive and Language Outcomes in Preterm-Born Children
Biological Psychiatry
Miller, J.V. and Chau, V. and Synnes, A. and Miller, S.P. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2022.03.010
2022

Lower Maternal Chronic Physiological Stress and Better Child Behavior at 18 Months: Follow-Up of a Cluster Randomized Trial of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Family Integrated Care
Journal of Pediatrics
Mclean, M.A. and Scoten, O.C. and Yu, W. and Ye, X.Y. and Petrie, J. and Church, P.T. and Soraisham, A.S. and Mirea, L.S. and Weinberg, J. and Synnes, A.R. and O{'}Brien, K. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.12.055
2022

Head circumference, total cerebral volume and neurodevelopment in preterm neonates
Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Selvanathan, T. and Guo, T. and Kwan, E. and Chau, V. and Brant, R. and Synnes, A.R. and Grunau, R.E. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-321397
2022

Ventricular Volume in Infants Born Very Preterm: Relationship with Brain Maturation and Neurodevelopment at Age 4.5 Years
Journal of Pediatrics
Sheng, M. and Guo, T. and Mabbott, C. and Chau, V. and Synnes, A. and de Vries, L.S. and Grunau, R.E. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.05.003
2022

Neonatal pain, thalamic development and sensory processing behaviour in children born very preterm
Early Human Development
Duerden, E.G. and Mclean, M.A. and Chau, C. and Guo, T. and Mackay, M. and Chau, V. and Synnes, A. and Miller, S.P. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2022.105617
2022

Prenatal antidepressant exposure and sex differences in neonatal corpus callosum microstructure
Developmental Psychobiology
Campbell, K.S.J. and Williams, L.J. and Bjornson, B.H. and Weik, E. and Brain, U. and Grunau, R.E. and Miller, S.P. and Oberlander, T.F.
DOI: 10.1002/dev.22125
2021

Sensory processing and cortisol at age 4 years: Procedural pain-related stress in children born very preterm
Developmental Psychobiology
McLean, M.A. and Niknafs, N. and Scoten, O.C. and Chau, C.M.Y. and MacKay, M. and Weinberg, J. and Synnes, A. and Miller, S.P. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1002/dev.22079
2021

Interaction between Preterm White Matter Injury and Childhood Thalamic Growth
Annals of Neurology
Cayam-Rand, D. and Guo, T. and Synnes, A. and Chau, V. and Mabbott, C. and Benavente-Fern{\'a}ndez, I. and Grunau, R.E. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1002/ana.26201
2021

Preterm infant heart rate is lowered after Family Nurture Intervention in the NICU: Evidence in support of autonomic conditioning
Early Human Development
Ludwig, R.J. and Grunau, R.E. and Chafkin, J.E. and Hane, A.A. and Isler, J.R. and Chau, C.M.Y. and Welch, M.G. and Myers, M.
DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2021.105455
2021

Longitudinal neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm twins
Pediatric Research
Christensen, R. and Chau, V. and Synnes, A. and Grunau, R.E. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1038/s41390-020-0840-7
2021

Neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants conceived by assisted reproductive technology
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Roychoudhury, S. and Lodha, A. and Synnes, A. and Abou Mehrem, A. and Canning, R. and Banihani, R. and Beltempo, M. and Theriault, K. and Yang, J. and Shah, P.S. and Soraisham, A.S. and Ting, J. and Alvaro, R. and Adie, M. and Ng, E. and Pelausa, E. and Claveau, M. and Barrington, K. and Lapoint, A. and Ethier, G. and Drolet, C. and Piedboeuf, B. and Afifi, J. and Dahlgren, L. and Wood, S. and Metcalfe, A. and O{'}Quinn, C. and Helewa, M. and Taboun, F. and Melamed, N. and Abenhaim, H. and Wou, K. and Gratton, R. and Boucoiran, I. and Taillefer, C. and Allen, V. and Grunau, R. and Hendson, L. and Moddemann, D. and de Cabo, C. and Nwaesei, C. and Church, P. and Nguyen, K.-A. and Khairy, M. and Dorval, V. and Luu, T.M. and B{\'e}langer, S.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2021.03.027
2021

Family Integrated Care (FICare): Positive impact on behavioural outcomes at 18 months
Early Human Development
Church, P.T. and Grunau, R.E. and Mirea, L. and Petrie, J. and Soraisham, A.S. and Synnes, A. and Ye, X.Y. and O{'}Brien, K.
DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2020.105196
2020

Atypical neuromagnetic resting activity associated with thalamic volume and cognitive outcome in very preterm children
NeuroImage: Clinical
Nunes, A.S. and Kozhemiako, N. and Hutcheon, E. and Chau, C. and Ribary, U. and Grunau, R.E. and Doesburg, S.M.
DOI: 10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102275
2020

Association of early skin breaks and neonatal thalamic maturation: A modifiable risk?
Neurology
Duerden, E.G. and Grunau, R.E. and Chau, V. and Groenendaal, F. and Guo, T. and Chakravarty, M.M. and Benders, M. and Wagenaar, N. and Eijsermans, R. and Koopman, C. and Synnes, A. and Vries, L. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000010953
2020

Neurodevelopmental outcomes after neonatal caffeine therapy
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
Synnes, A. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.siny.2020.101160
2020

Effects of maternal depression and prenatal SSRI exposure on executive functions and susceptibility to household chaos in 6-year-old children: Prospective cohort study
BJPsych Open
Dhaliwal, G. and Weikum, W.M. and Jolicoeur-Martineau, A. and Brain, U. and Grunau, R.E. and Oberlander, T.F.
DOI: 10.1192/bjo.2020.73
2020

Sex differences in brain connectivity and male vulnerability in very preterm children
Human Brain Mapping
Kozhemiako, N. and Nunes, A.S. and Vakorin, V.A. and Chau, C.M.Y. and Moiseev, A. and Ribary, U. and Grunau, R.E. and Doesburg, S.M.
DOI: 10.1002/hbm.24809
2020

Mechanical Ventilation Duration, Brainstem Development, and Neurodevelopment in Children Born Preterm: A Prospective Cohort Study
Journal of Pediatrics
Guillot, M. and Guo, T. and Ufkes, S. and Schneider, J. and Synnes, A. and Chau, V. and Grunau, R.E. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.05.039
2020

Location and Size of Preterm Cerebellar Hemorrhage and Childhood Development
Annals of Neurology
Garfinkle, J. and Guo, T. and Synnes, A. and Chau, V. and Branson, H.M. and Ufkes, S. and Tam, E.W.Y. and Grunau, R.E. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1002/ana.25899
2020

Alterations in Resting-State Networks Following In Utero Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Exposure in the Neonatal Brain
Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Rotem-Kohavi, N. and Williams, L.J. and Virji-Babul, N. and Bjornson, B.H. and Brain, U. and Werker, J.F. and Grunau, R.E. and Miller, S.P. and Oberlander, T.F.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.08.004
2019

Association of socioeconomic status and brain injury with neurodevelopmental outcomes of very preterm children
JAMA Network Open
Benavente-Fernandez, I. and Synnes, A. and Grunau, R.E. and Chau, V. and Ramraj, C. and Glass, T. and Cayam-Rand, D. and Siddiqi, A. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2914
2019

Hub distribution of the brain functional networks of newborns prenatally exposed to maternal depression and SSRI antidepressants
Depression and Anxiety
Rotem-Kohavi, N. and Williams, L.J. and Muller, A.M. and Abdi, H. and Virji-Babul, N. and Bjornson, B.H. and Brain, U. and Werker, J.F. and Grunau, R.E. and Miller, S.P. and Oberlander, T.F.
DOI: 10.1002/da.22906
2019

Hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus volumes in very preterm children at 8 years: Neonatal pain and genetic variation
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Chau, C.M.Y. and Ranger, M. and Bichin, M. and Park, M.T.M. and Amaral, R.S.C. and Chakravarty, M. and Poskitt, K. and Synnes, A.R. and Miller, S.P. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2019.00051
2019

Predictive connectome subnetwork extraction with anatomical and connectivity priors
Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics
Brown, C.J. and Miller, S.P. and Booth, B.G. and Zwicker, J.G. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A.R. and Chau, V. and Hamarneh, G.
DOI: 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2018.08.009
2019

Self-reported Quality of Life at Middle School Age in Survivors of Very Preterm Birth: Results from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial
JAMA Pediatrics
Schmidt, B. and Anderson, P.J. and Asztalos, E.V. and Doyle, L.W. and Grunau, R.E. and Moddemann, D. and Roberts, R.S.
DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.4853
2019

Neurologic Examination Findings Associated With Small Cerebellar Volumes After Prematurity
Journal of Child Neurology
Tam, E.W.Y. and Chau, V. and Lavoie, R. and Chakravarty, M.M. and Guo, T. and Synnes, A. and Zwicker, J. and Grunau, R. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1177/0883073819847925
2019

Prenatal SSRI antidepressant use and maternal internalizing symptoms during pregnancy and postpartum: Exploring effects on infant temperament trajectories for boys and girls
Journal of Affective Disorders
Erickson, N.L. and Hancock, G.R. and Oberlander, T.F. and Brain, U. and Grunau, R.E. and Gartstein, M.A.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2019.08.003
2019

Atypical resting state neuromagnetic connectivity and spectral power in very preterm children
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines
Kozhemiako, N. and Nunes, A. and Vakorin, V.A. and Chau, C.M.Y. and Moiseev, A. and Ribary, U. and Grunau, R.E. and Doesburg, S.M.
DOI: 10.1111/jcpp.13026
2019

Atypical neuromagnetic resting activity associated with thalamic volume and cognitive outcome in very preterm children
bioRxiv
Nunes, A.S. and Kozhemiako, N. and Hutcheon, E. and Chau, C. and Ribary, U. and Grunau, R.E. and Doesburg, S.M.
DOI: 10.1101/729038
2019

Early psychosocial development of small for gestational age and intrauterine growth-restricted children: a systematic review
Journal of Perinatology
Levine, T.A. and Grunau, R.E. and McAuliffe, F.M. and Alderdice, F.A.
DOI: 10.1038/s41372-019-0369-y
2019

Adverse behavioral changes in adult mice following neonatal repeated exposure to pain and sucrose
Frontiers in Psychology
Ranger, M. and Tremblay, S. and Chau, C.M.Y. and Holsti, L. and Grunau, R.E. and Goldowitz, D.
DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02394
2019

Pain in Child Health from 2002 to 2015: The early years of an international research training initiative
Canadian Journal of Pain
von Baeyer, C.L. and Stevens, B.J. and Craig, K.D. and Finley, G.A. and Johnston, C.C. and Grunau, R.V.E. and Chambers, C.T. and Pillai Riddell, R.R. and Stinson, J.N. and McGrath, P.J.
DOI: 10.1080/24740527.2018.1562844
2019

Morphine biotransformation genes and neonatal clinical factors predicted behaviour problems in very preterm children at 18¿months
EBioMedicine
Chau, C.M.Y. and Ross, C.J.D. and Chau, V. and Synnes, A.R. and Miller, S.P. and Carleton, B. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.01.042
2019

Predicting developmental outcomes in preterm infants: A simple white matter injury imaging rule
Neurology
Cayam-Rand, D. and Guo, T. and Grunau, R.E. and Benavente-Fern{\'a}ndez, I. and Synnes, A. and Chau, V. and Branson, H. and Latal, B. and Mcquillen, P. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000008172
2019

Concurrent Validity of the Bayley-III and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 at 18 Months
Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
Gill, K. and Osiovich, A. and Synnes, A. and A. Agnew, J. and Grunau, R.E. and Miller, S.P. and Zwicker, J.G.
DOI: 10.1080/01942638.2018.1546255
2019

Maternal depression trajectories from pregnancy to 3 years postpartum are associated with children’s behavior and executive functions at 3 and 6 years
Archives of Women's Mental Health
Park, M. and Brain, U. and Grunau, R.E. and Diamond, A. and Oberlander, T.F.
DOI: 10.1007/s00737-017-0803-0
2018

Association of histologic chorioamnionitis with perinatal brain injury and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes among preterm neonates
JAMA Pediatrics
Bierstone, D. and Wagenaar, N. and Gano, D.L. and Guo, T. and Georgio, G. and Groenendaal, F. and De Vries, L.S. and Varghese, J. and Glass, H.C. and Chung, C. and Terry, J. and Rijpert, M. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A. and Barkovich, A.J. and Ferriero, D.M. and Benders, M. and Chau, V. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.0102
2018

Early procedural pain is associated with regionally-specific alterations in thalamic development in preterm neonates
Journal of Neuroscience
Duerden, E.G. and Grunau, R.E. and Guo, T. and Foong, J. and Pearson, A. and Au-Young, S. and Lavoie, R. and Chakravarty, M.M. and Chau, V. and Synnes, A. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0867-17.2017
2018

Children's stress regulation mediates the association between prenatal maternal mood and child executive functions for boys, but not girls
Development and Psychopathology
Neuenschwander, R. and Hookenson, K. and Brain, U. and Grunau, R.E. and Devlin, A.M. and Weinberg, J. and Diamond, A. and Oberlander, T.F.
DOI: 10.1017/S095457941800041X
2018

Association of Histologic Chorioamnionitis with Perinatal Brain Injury and Early Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcomes among Preterm Neonates
Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey
Bierstone, D. and Wagenaar, N. and Gano, D.L. and Guo, T. and Georgio, G. and Groenendaal, F. and De Vries, L.S. and Varghese, J. and Glass, H.C. and Chung, C. and Terry, J. and Rijpert, M. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A. and Barkovich, A.J. and Ferriero, D.M. and Benders, M. and Chau, V. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1097/01.ogx.0000549830.07599.6f
2018

Plasma betaine is positively associated with developmental outcomes in healthy toddlers at age 2 years who are not meeting the recommended adequate intake for dietary choline
Journal of Nutrition
Wiedeman, A.M. and Chau, C.M.Y. and Grunau, R.E. and McCarthy, D. and Yurko-Mauro, K. and Dyer, R.A. and Innis, S.M. and Devlin, A.M.
DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy108
2018

Neurobehavioral outcomes 11 years after neonatal caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity
Pediatrics
M{\"u}rner-Lavanchy, I.M. and Doyle, L.W. and Schmidt, B. and Roberts, R.S. and Asztalos, E.V. and Costantini, L. and Davis, P.G. and Dewey, D. and D{'}Ilario, J. and Grunau, R.E. and Moddemann, D. and Nelson, H. and Ohlsson, A. and Solimano, A. and Tin, W. and Anderson, P.J. and Dix, J. and Adams, B.A. and Warriner, E. and Callanan, C. and Davis, N. and McDonald, M. and Duff, J. and Kelly, E. and Hutchinson, E. and Hohn, D. and Ayaz, A. and Allen, J. and Haslam, R. and Goodchild, L. and Lontis, R.M. and Opie, G. and Woods, H. and Marchant, E. and Magrath, E. and Williamson, A. and Synnes, A. and Butt, A. and Petrie, J. and Sauve, R.S. and Christianson, H. and Anseeuw-Deeks, D. and Makarchuk, S. and Debooy, V. and Granke, N. and Bow, J. and Herlenius, E. and Legnevall, L. and B{\"o}hm, B. and BergStr{\"o}m, B.-M. and St?lnacke, S. and Sund{\'e}n-Cullberg, S. and Mayes, C. and McCusker, C. and Robinson, U. and Embleton, N. and Carnell, J.
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-4047
2018

Procedural pain and oral glucose in preterm neonates: Brain development and sex-specific effects
Pain
Schneider, J. and Duerden, E.G. and Guo, T. and Ng, K. and Hagmann, P. and Graz, M.B. and Grunau, R.E. and Chakravarty, M.M. and Huppi, P.S. and Truttmann, A.C. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001123
2018

Multiple Postnatal Infections in Newborns Born Preterm Predict Delayed Maturation of Motor Pathways at Term-Equivalent Age with Poorer Motor Outcomes at 3 Years
Journal of Pediatrics
Glass, T.J.A. and Chau, V. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A. and Guo, T. and Duerden, E.G. and Foong, J. and Poskitt, K.J. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.12.041
2018

A randomized trial to evaluate the effect of two topical anesthetics on pain response during frenotomy in young infants
Pain Medicine (United States)
Shavit, I. and Peri-Front, Y. and Rosen-Walther, A. and Grunau, R.E. and Neuman, G. and Nachmani, O. and Koren, G. and Aizenbud, D.
DOI: 10.1093/pm/pnw097
2017

Survival, Short-Term, and Long-Term Morbidities of Neonates with Birth Weight < 500 g
American Journal of Perinatology
Bashir, R.A. and Thomas, J.P. and Mackay, M. and Agnew, J. and Hubber-Richard, P. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A.
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1603462
2017

Quantitative assessment of white matter injury in preterm neonates
Neurology
Guo, T. and Duerden, E.G. and Adams, E. and Chau, V. and Branson, H.M. and Chakravarty, M.M. and Poskitt, K.J. and Synnes, A. and Grunau, R.E. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003606
2017

Antenatal exposure to antidepressants is associated with altered brain development in very preterm-born neonates
Neuroscience
Podrebarac, S.K. and Duerden, E.G. and Chau, V. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A. and Oberlander, T.F. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.11.025
2017

Academic performance, motor function, and behavior 11 years after neonatal caffeine citrate therapy for apnea of prematurity: An 11-year follow-up of the CAP randomized clinical trial
JAMA Pediatrics
Schmidt, B. and Roberts, R.S. and Anderson, P.J. and Asztalos, E.V. and Costantini, L. and Davis, P.G. and Dewey, D. and D{'}Ilario, J. and Doyle, L.W. and Grunau, R.E. and Moddemann, D. and Nelson, H. and Ohlsson, A. and Solimano, A. and Tin, W. and Dix, J. and Adams, B.A. and Warriner, E. and Callanan, C. and Davis, N. and McDonald, M. and Duff, J. and Kelly, E. and Hutchinson, E. and Hohn, D. and Ayaz, A. and Allen, J. and Haslam, R. and Goodchild, L. and Lontis, R.M. and Opie, G. and Woods, H. and Marchant, E. and Magrath, E. and Williamson, A. and Bairam, A. and B{\'e}langer, S. and Fraser, A. and Leblanc, M. and Synnes, A. and Butt, A. and Petrie, J. and Sauve, R.S. and Christianson, H. and Anseeuw-Deeks, D. and Makarchuk, S. and Debooy, V. and Granke, N. and Bow, J. and Nwaesei, C. and Ryan, H. and Saunders, C. and Herlenius, E. and Legnevall, L. and B{\"o}hm, B. and Bergstr{\"o}m, B.-M. and St?lnacke, S. and Sund{\'e}n-Cullberg, S. and Mayes, C. and McCusker, C. and Robinson, U. and Embleton, N. and Carnell, J.
DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.0238
2017

Narcotics and Sedative Use in Preterm Neonates
Journal of Pediatrics
Borenstein-Levin, L. and Synnes, A. and Grunau, R.E. and Miller, S.P. and Yoon, E.W. and Shah, P.S.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.08.031
2017

Severe retinopathy of prematurity predicts delayed white matter maturation and poorer neurodevelopment
Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Glass, T.J.A. and Chau, V. and Gardiner, J. and Foong, J. and Vinall, J. and Zwicker, J.G. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A. and Poskitt, K.J. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2016-312533
2017

BrainNetCNN: Convolutional neural networks for brain networks; towards predicting neurodevelopment
NeuroImage
Kawahara, J. and Brown, C.J. and Miller, S.P. and Booth, B.G. and Chau, V. and Grunau, R.E. and Zwicker, J.G. and Hamarneh, G.
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.09.046
2017

Repeated exposure to sucrose for procedural pain in mouse pups leads to long-term widespread brain alterations
Pain
Tremblay, S. and Ranger, M. and Chau, C.M.Y. and Ellegood, J. and Lerch, J.P. and Holsti, L. and Goldowitz, D. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000961
2017

Association between corpus callosum development on magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging, and neurodevelopmental outcome in neonates born very preterm
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Malavolti, A.M. and Chau, V. and Brown-Lum, M. and Poskitt, K.J. and Brant, R. and Synnes, A. and Grunau, R.E. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.13364
2017

Pregnancy-specific stress, fetoplacental haemodynamics, and neonatal outcomes in women with small for gestational age pregnancies: A secondary analysis of the multicentre Prospective Observational Trial to Optimise Paediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction
BMJ Open
Levine, T.A. and Grunau, R.E. and Segurado, R. and Daly, S. and Geary, M.P. and Kennelly, M.M. and O{'}Donoghue, K. and Hunter, A. and Morrison, J.J. and Burke, G. and Dicker, P. and Tully, E.C. and Malone, F.D. and Alderdice, F.A. and McAuliffe, F.M.
DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015326
2017

Developmental Outcomes at 24 Months of Age in Toddlers Supplemented with Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid: Results of a Double Blind Randomized, Controlled Trial
Nutrients
Devlin, A.M. and Chau, C.M.Y. and Dyer, R. and Matheson, J. and McCarthy, D. and Yurko-Mauro, K. and Innis, S.M. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.3390/nu9090975
2017

Prediction of brain network age and factors of delayed maturation in very preterm infants
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Brown, C.J. and Moriarty, K.P. and Miller, S.P. and Booth, B.G. and Zwicker, J.G. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A.R. and Chau, V. and Hamarneh, G.
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-66182-7_10
2017

Clinical Risk Factors for Punctate White Matter Lesions on Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Preterm Newborns
Journal of Pediatrics
Wagenaar, N. and Chau, V. and Groenendaal, F. and Kersbergen, K.J. and Poskitt, K.J. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A. and Duerden, E.G. and de Vries, L.S. and Miller, S.P. and Benders, M.J.N.L.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.11.073
2017

The Val66Met brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene variant interacts with early pain exposure to predict cortisol dysregulation in 7-year-old children born very preterm: Implications for cognition
Neuroscience
Chau, C.M.Y. and Cepeda, I.L. and Devlin, A.M. and Weinberg, J. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.08.044
2017

SLC6A4 promoter region methylation and socio-emotional stress response in very preterm and full-term infants
Epigenomics
Montirosso, R. and Provenzi, L. and Giorda, R. and Fumagalli, M. and Morandi, F. and Sirgiovanni, I. and Pozzoli, U. and Grunau, R. and Oberlander, T.F. and Mosca, F. and Borgatti, R.
DOI: 10.2217/epi-2016-0010
2016

Sculpting infant soothability: the role of prenatal SSRI antidepressant exposure and neonatal SLC6A4 methylation status
Developmental Psychobiology
Gartstein, M.A. and Hookenson, K.V. and Brain, U. and Devlin, A.M. and Grunau, R.E. and Oberlander, T.F.
DOI: 10.1002/dev.21414
2016

Surface displacement based shape analysis of central brain structures in preterm-born children
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
Garg, A. and Grunau, R.E. and Popuri, K. and Miller, S. and Bjornson, B. and Poskitt, K.J. and Beg, M.F.
DOI: 10.1117/12.2216914
2016

Prenatal stress and hemodynamics in pregnancy: a systematic review
Archives of Women's Mental Health
Levine, T.A. and Alderdice, F.A. and Grunau, R.E. and McAuliffe, F.M.
DOI: 10.1007/s00737-016-0645-1
2016

Neonatal Invasive Procedures Predict Pain Intensity at School Age in Children Born Very Preterm
Clinical Journal of Pain
Valeri, B.O. and Ranger, M. and Chau, C.M.Y. and Cepeda, I.L. and Synnes, A. and Linhares, M.B.M. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000353
2016

Comment on the Paper by Van Den Bosch et al. Entitled 'prematurity, opioid exposure and neonatal pain: Do they affect the developing brain?': The impact of subtle messaging
Neonatology
Holsti, L. and Zwicker, J.G. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1159/000442081
2016

STEAM - Statistical Template Estimation for Abnormality Mapping: A personalized DTI analysis technique with applications to the screening of preterm infants
NeuroImage
Booth, B.G. and Miller, S.P. and Brown, C.J. and Poskitt, K.J. and Chau, V. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A.R. and Hamarneh, G.
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.08.079
2016

Early postnatal docosahexaenoic acid levels and improved preterm brain development
Pediatric Research
Tam, E.W.Y. and Chau, V. and Barkovich, A.J. and Ferriero, D.M. and Miller, S.P. and Rogers, E.E. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A.R. and Xu, D. and Foong, J. and Brant, R. and Innis, S.M.
DOI: 10.1038/pr.2016.11
2016

Sensory processing patterns in children born very preterm
American Journal of Occupational Therapy
Crozier, S.C. and Goodson, J.Z. and Mackay, M.L. and Synnes, A.R. and Grunau, R.E. and Miller, S.P. and Zwicker, J.G.
DOI: 10.5014/ajot.2016.018747
2016

Predictive subnetwork extraction with structural priors for infant connectomes
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Brown, C.J. and Miller, S.P. and Booth, B.G. and Zwicker, J.G. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A.R. and Chau, V. and Hamarneh, G.
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-46720-7_21
2016

Higher cortisol is associated with poorer executive functioning in preschool children: The role of parenting stress, parent coping and quality of daycare
Child Neuropsychology
Wagner, S.L. and Cepeda, I. and Krieger, D. and Maggi, S. and D?Angiulli, A. and Weinberg, J. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1080/09297049.2015.1080232
2016

Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration
Hypertension
Hovi, P. and Vohr, B. and Ment, L.R. and Doyle, L.W. and McGarvey, L. and Morrison, K.M. and Evensen, K.A.I. and Van Der Pal, S. and Grunau, R.E. and Brubakk, A.-M. and Andersson, S. and Saigal, S. and Kajantie, E.
DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.08167
2016

Smaller cerebellar growth and poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes in very preterm infants exposed to neonatal morphine
Journal of Pediatrics
Zwicker, J.G. and Miller, S.P. and Grunau, R.E. and Chau, V. and Brant, R. and Studholme, C. and Liu, M. and Synnes, A. and Poskitt, K.J. and Stiver, M.L. and Tam, E.W.Y.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.12.024
2016

Midazolam dose correlates with abnormal hippocampal growth and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants
Annals of Neurology
Duerden, E.G. and Guo, T. and Dodbiba, L. and Chakravarty, M.M. and Chau, V. and Poskitt, K.J. and Synnes, A. and Grunau, R.E. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1002/ana.24601
2016

Magnetoencephalography: Neurophysiologic imaging for perinatal brain development
NeoReviews
Cheung, T.P.L. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A. and Eswaran, H. and Doesburg, S.M.
DOI: 10.1542/neo.16-9-e544
2015

Early childhood neurodevelopment after intrauterine growth restriction: A systematic review
Pediatrics
Levine, T.A. and Grunau, R.E. and McAuliffe, F.M. and Pinnamaneni, R.M. and Foran, A. and Alderdice, F.A.
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-1143
2015

Altered Network Oscillations and Functional Connectivity Dynamics in Children Born Very Preterm
Brain Topography
Moiseev, A. and Doesburg, S.M. and Herdman, A.T. and Ribary, U. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1007/s10548-014-0416-0
2015

Tract-based spatial statistics in preterm-born neonates predicts cognitive and motor outcomes at 18 months
American Journal of Neuroradiology
Duerden, E.G. and Foong, J. and Chau, V. and Branson, H. and Poskitt, K.J. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A. and Zwicker, J.G. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.3174/ajnr.A4312
2015

Stress in parents of children born very preterm is predicted by child externalising behaviour and parent coping at age 7 years
Archives of Disease in Childhood
Linden, M.A. and Cepeda, I.L. and Synnes, A. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2014-307390
2015

Parent ratings of child cognition and language compared with Bayley-III in preterm 3-year-olds
Early Human Development
Perra, O. and McGowan, J.E. and Grunau, R.E. and Doran, J.B. and Craig, S. and Johnston, L. and Jenkins, J. and Holmes, V.A. and Alderdice, F.A.
DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2015.01.009
2015

Prediction of motor function in very preterm infants using connectome features and local synthetic instances
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Brown, C.J. and Miller, S.P. and Booth, B.G. and Poskitt, K.J. and Chau, V. and Synnes, A.R. and Zwicker, J.G. and Grunau, R.E. and Hamarneh, G.
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-24553-9_9
2015

Neonatal Pain and Infection Relate to Smaller Cerebellum in Very Preterm Children at School Age
Journal of Pediatrics
Ranger, M. and Zwicker, J.G. and Chau, C.M.Y. and Park, M.T.M. and Chakravarthy, M.M. and Poskitt, K. and Miller, S.P. and Bjornson, B.H. and Tam, E.W.Y. and Chau, V. and Synnes, A.R. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.04.055
2015

Predicting severe motor impairment in preterm children at age 5 years
Archives of Disease in Childhood
Synnes, A. and Anderson, P.J. and Grunau, R.E. and Dewey, D. and Moddemann, D. and Tin, W. and Davis, P.G. and Doyle, L.W. and Foster, G. and Khairy, M. and Nwaesei, C. and Schmidt, B. and D{'}Ilario, J. and Cairnie, J. and Dix, J. and Adams, B.A. and Warriner, E. and Kim, M.-H.M. and Argus, B. and Callanan, C. and Davis, N. and Duff, J. and McDonald, M. and Asztalos, E. and Hohn, D. and Lacy, M. and Haslam, R. and Barnett, C. and Goodchild, L. and Lontis, R.M. and Fraser, S. and Keng, J. and Saunders, K. and Opie, G. and Kelly, E. and Woods, H. and Marchant, E. and Turner, A.-M. and Magrath, E. and Williamson, A. and Bairam, A. and B{\'e}langer, S. and Fraser, A. and Blayney, M. and Lemyre, B. and Frank, J. and Solimano, A. and Hubber-Richard, P. and Rogers, M. and Mackay, M. and Petrie-Thomas, J. and Butt, A. and Van Wassenaer, A. and Nuytemans, D. and Houtzager, B. and Van Sonderen, L. and Regev, R. and Itzchack, N. and Arnon, S. and Chalaf, A. and Ohlsson, A. and O{'}Brien, K. and Hamilton, A.-M. and Chan, M.L. and Sankaran, K. and Proctor, P. and Golan, A. and Goldsch-Lerman, E. and Reynolds, G. and Dromgool, B. and Meskell, A. and Parr, V. and Maher, C. and Broom, M. and Kecskes, Z. and Ringland, C. and McMillan, D. and Spellen, E. and Sauve, R.S. and Christianson, H. and Anseeuw-Deeks, D. and Creighton, D. and Heath, J. and Alvaro, R. and Chiu, A. and Porter, C. and Turner, G. and Granke, N. and Penner, K. and Bow, J. and Mulder, A. and Wassenberg, R. and Van Der Hoeven, M. and Clarke, M. and Parfitt, J. and Parker, K. and Ryan, H. and Saunders, C. and Schulze, A. and Wermuth, I. and Hilgendorff, A. and Flemmer, A.W. and Herlenius, E. and Legnevall, L. and Lagercrantz, H. and Matthew, D. and Amos, W. and Tulsiani, S. and Tan-Dy, C. and Turner, M. and Phelan, C. and Shinwell, E.S. and Levine, M. and Juster-Reicher, A. and Grier, P. and Vachon, J. and Perepolkin, L. and Barrington, K.J. and Sinha, S.K. and Fritz, S. and Walti, H. and Royer, D. and Halliday, H. and Millar, D. and Mayes, C. and McCusker, C. and McLaughlin, O. and Fahnenstich, H. and Tillmann, B. and Weber, P. and Wariyar, U. and Embleton, N. and Swamy, R. and Bucher, H.U. and Fauchere, J.-C. and Dietz, V. and Harikumar, C.
DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2014-307695
2015

Automatic segmentation of the hippocampus for preterm neonates from early-in-life to term-equivalent age
NeuroImage: Clinical
Guo, T. and Winterburn, J.L. and Pipitone, J. and Duerden, E.G. and Park, M.T.M. and Chau, V. and Poskitt, K.J. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A. and Miller, S.P. and Mallar Chakravarty, M.
DOI: 10.1016/j.nicl.2015.07.019
2015

Social variables predict gains in cognitive scores across the preschool years in children with birth weights 500 to 1250 grams
Journal of Pediatrics
Manley, B.J. and Roberts, R.S. and Doyle, L.W. and Schmidt, B. and Anderson, P.J. and Barrington, K.J. and B{\"o}hm, B. and Golan, A. and Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.G. and Davis, P.G. and D{'}Ilario, J. and Cairnie, J. and Dix, J. and Adams, B.A. and Warriner, E. and Kim, M.-H.M. and Argus, B. and Callanan, C. and Duff, J. and McDonald, M. and Asztalos, E. and Hohn, D. and Lacy, M. and Haslam, R. and Barnett, C. and Goodchild, L. and Lontis, R.M. and Fraser, S. and Keng, J. and Saunders, K. and Opie, G. and Kelly, E. and Woods, H. and Marchant, E. and Turner, A.-M. and Davis, N. and Magrath, E. and Williamson, A. and Bairam, A. and Belanger, S. and Fraser, A. and Blayney, M. and Lemyre, B. and Frank, J. and Solimano, A. and Synnes, A. and Grunau, R.E. and Hubber-Richard, P. and Rogers, M. and Mackay, M. and Petrie-Thomas, J. and Butt, A. and Van Wassenaer, A. and Nuytemans, D. and Houtzager, B. and Van Sonderen, L. and Regev, R. and Itzchack, N. and Arnon, S. and Chalaf, A. and Ohlsson, A. and O{'}Brien, K. and Hamilton, A.-M. and Chan, M.L. and Sankaran, K. and Proctor, P. and Goldsch-Lerman, E. and Reynolds, G. and Dromgool, B. and Meskell, S. and Parr, V. and Maher, C. and Broom, M. and Kecskes, Z. and Ringland, C. and McMillan, D. and Spellen, E. and Sauve, R.S. and Christianson, H. and Anseeuw-Deeks, D. and Creighton, D. and Heath, J. and Alvaro, R. and Chiu, A. and Porter, C. and Turner, G. and Moddemann, D. and Granke, N. and Penner, K. and Bow, J. and Mulder, A. and Wassenberg, R. and Van Der Hoeven, M. and Clarke, M. and Parfitt, J. and Parker, K. and Nwaesei, C. and Ryan, H. and Saunders, C. and Schulze, A. and Wermuth, I. and Hilgendorff, A. and Flemmer, A.W. and Herlenius, E. and Legnevall, L. and Lagercrantz, H. and Matthew, D. and Amos, W. and Tulsiani, S. and Tan-Dy, C. and Turner, M. and Phelan, C. and Shinwell, E.S. and Levine, M. and Juster-Reicher, A. and Khairy, M. and Grier, P. and Vachon, J. and Perepolkin, L. and Sinha, S.K. and Tin, W. and Fritz, S. and Walti, H. and Royer, D. and Halliday, H. and Millar, D. and Mayes, C. and McCusker, C. and McLaughlin, O. and Fahnenstich, H. and Tillmann, B. and Weber, P. and Wariyar, U. and Embleton, N. and Swamy, R. and Bucher, H.U. and Fauchere, J.-C. and Dietz, V. and Harikumar, C. and Dewey, D. and Gent, M. and Fraser, W. and Hey, E. and Perlman, M. and Thorpe, K. and Gray, S. and Chambers, C. and Costantini, L. and Yacura, W. and McGean, E. and Scapinello, L.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.12.016
2015

How do babies feel pain?
eLife
Ranger, M. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.7554/eLife.07552
2015

Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress
Psychoneuroendocrinology
Brummelte, S. and Chau, C.M.Y. and Cepeda, I.L. and Degenhardt, A. and Weinberg, J. and Synnes, A.R. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.09.018
2015

Minimum variance beamformer weights revisited
NeuroImage
Moiseev, A. and Doesburg, S.M. and Grunau, R.E. and Ribary, U.
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.06.079
2015

Internalizing behaviours in school-age children born very preterm are predicted by neonatal pain and morphine exposure
European Journal of Pain (United Kingdom)
Ranger, M. and Synnes, A.R. and Vinall, J. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1002/j.1532-2149.2013.00431.x
2014

Neonatal pain and comt Val158Met genotype in relation to serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) promoter methylation in very preterm children at school age
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Chau, C.M.Y. and Ranger, M. and Sulistyoningrum, D. and Devlin, A.M. and Obertander, T.F. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00409
2014

Reduction in developmental coordination disorder with neonatal caffeine therapy
Journal of Pediatrics
Doyle, L.W. and Schmidt, B. and Anderson, P.J. and Davis, P.G. and Moddemann, D. and Grunau, R.E. and O{'}Brien, K. and Sankaran, K. and Herlenius, E. and Roberts, R.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.04.016
2014

Five-year follow-up of effects of neonatal intensive care and morphine infusion during mechanical ventilation on diurnal cortisol rhythm
Journal of Pediatrics
De Graaf, J. and Van Den Akker, E.L.T. and Van Lingen, R.A. and Groot Jebbink, L.J.M. and De Jong, F.H. and Grunau, R.E. and Van Dijk, M. and Tibboel, D.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.05.047
2014

Neonatal pain control and neurologic effects of anesthetics and sedatives in preterm infants
Clinics in Perinatology
McPherson, C. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.clp.2013.10.002
2014

Training highly qualified health research personnel: The Pain in child Health consortium
Pain Research and Management
Von Baeyer, C.L. and Stevens, B.J. and Chambers, C.T. and Craig, K.D. and Finley, G.A. and Grunau, R.E. and Johnston, C.C. and Riddell, R.P. and Stinson, J.N. and Dol, J. and Campbell-Yeo, M. and McGrath, P.J.
DOI: 10.1155/2014/692857
2014

Invasive procedures in preterm children: Brain and cognitive development at school age
Pediatrics
Vinall, J. and Miller, S.P. and Bjornson, B.H. and Fitzpatrick, K.P.V. and Poskitt, K.J. and Brant, R. and Synnes, A.R. and Cepeda, I.L. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-1863
2014

Manually segmented template library for 8-year-old pediatric brain MRI data with 16 subcortical structures
Journal of Medical Imaging
Garg, A. and Wong, D. and Popuri, K. and Poskitt, K.J. and Fitzpatrick, K. and Bjornson, B. and Grunau, R.E. and Beg, M.F.
DOI: 10.1117/1.JMI.1.3.034502
2014

Early repetitive pain in preterm infants in relation to the developing brain
Pain management
Ranger, M. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.2217/pmt.13.61
2014

Impact of repeated procedural pain-related stress in infants born very preterm
Pediatric Research
Vinall, J. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1038/pr.2014.16
2014

Resuscitation intensity at birth is associated with changes in brain metabolic development in preterm neonates
Neuroradiology
Duerden, E.G. and Brown-Lum, M. and Chau, V. and Poskitt, K.J. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1007/s00234-013-1243-9
2013

Neonatal Pain-Related Stress and NFKBIA Genotype Are Associated with Altered Cortisol Levels in Preterm Boys at School Age
PLoS ONE
Grunau, R.E. and Cepeda, I.L. and Chau, C.M.Y. and Brummelte, S. and Weinberg, J. and Lavoie, P.M. and Ladd, M. and Hirschfeld, A.F. and Russell, E. and Koren, G. and Van Uum, S. and Brant, R. and Turvey, S.E.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073926
2013

Slower postnatal growth is associated with delayed cerebral cortical maturation in preterm newborns
Science Translational Medicine
Vinall, J. and Grunau, R.E. and Brant, R. and Chau, V. and Poskitt, K.J. and Synnes, A.R. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3004666
2013

Neonatal Pain-Related Stress Predicts Cortical Thickness at Age 7 Years in Children Born Very Preterm
PLoS ONE
Ranger, M. and Chau, C.M.Y. and Garg, A. and Woodward, T.S. and Beg, M.F. and Bjornson, B. and Poskitt, K. and Fitzpatrick, K. and Synnes, A.R. and Miller, S.P. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076702
2013

Region-specific slowing of alpha oscillations is associated with visual-perceptual abilities in children born very preterm
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Doesburg, S.M. and Moiseev, A. and Herdman, A.T. and Ribary, U. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00791
2013

Score for neonatal acute physiology-II and neonatal pain predict Corticospinal tract development in premature newborns
Pediatric Neurology
Zwicker, J.G. and Grunau, R.E. and Adams, E. and Chau, V. and Brant, R. and Poskitt, K.J. and Synnes, A. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2012.10.016
2013

Perceived Stress and Canadian Early Childcare Educators
Child and Youth Care Forum
Wagner, S.L. and Forer, B. and Cepeda, I.L. and Goelman, H. and Maggi, S. and D{'}Angiulli, A. and Wessel, J. and Hertzman, C. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1007/s10566-012-9187-5
2013

The impact of prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant exposure and maternal mood on mother-infant interactions at 3 months of age
Infant Behavior and Development
Weikum, W.M. and Mayes, L.C. and Grunau, R.E. and Brain, U. and Oberlander, T.F.
DOI: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2013.04.001
2013

Electroencephalographic activity in response to procedural pain in preterm infants born at 28 and 33 weeks gestational age
Clinical Journal of Pain
Maimon, N. and Grunau, R.E. and Cepeda, I.L. and Friger, M. and Selnovik, L. and Gilat, S. and Shany, E.
DOI: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e318284e525
2013

Long term effects of pain-related stress on neurodevelopment and pain perception of infants born very prematurely,Effets à long terme du stress lié à la douleur sur le neurodéveloppement et la perception de la douleur chez les enfants très grands prématurés
Enfance
Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.4074/S0013754513001043
2013

Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely
Pain
Vinall, J. and Miller, S.P. and Synnes, A.R. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.05.050
2013

Neonatal pain-related stress, functional cortical activity and visual-perceptual abilities in school-age children born at extremely low gestational age
Pain
Doesburg, S.M. and Chau, C.M. and Cheung, T.P.L. and Moiseev, A. and Ribary, U. and Herdman, A.T. and Miller, S.P. and Cepeda, I.L. and Synnes, A. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.04.009
2013

Prenatal and postnatal inflammation in relation to cortisol levels in preterm infants at 18 months corrected age
Journal of Perinatology
Gover, A. and Chau, V. and Miller, S.P. and Brant, R. and Mcfadden, D.E. and Poskitt, K.J. and Synnes, A. and Weinberg, J. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1038/jp.2013.24
2013

Hair cortisol reflects socio-economic factors and hair zinc in preschoolers
Psychoneuroendocrinology
Vaghri, Z. and Guhn, M. and Weinberg, J. and Grunau, R.E. and Yu, W. and Hertzman, C.
DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.06.009
2013

Prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant exposure and serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4) influence executive functions at 6 years of age
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Weikum, W.M. and Brain, U. and Chau, C.M.Y. and Grunau, R.E. and Boyce, W.T. and Diamond, A. and Oberlander, T.F.
DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2013.00180
2013

Abnormal brain maturation in preterm neonates associated with adverse developmental outcomes
Neurology
Chau, V. and Synnes, A. and Grunau, R.E. and Poskitt, K.J. and Brant, R. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000437298.43688.b9
2013

Frontal EEG/ERP correlates of attentional processes, cortisol and motivational states in adolescents from lower and higher socioeconomic status
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
D{'}Angiulli, A. and Van Roon, P.M. and Weinberg, J. and Oberlander, T.F. and Grunau, R.E. and Hertzman, C. and Maggi, S.
2012

Frontal EEG/ERP correlates of attentional processes, cortisol and motivational states in adolescents from lower and higher socioeconomic status
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
D{'}Angiulli, A. and Van Roon, P.M. and Weinberg, J. and Oberlander, T.F. and Grunau, R.E. and Hertzman, C. and Maggi, S.
DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00306
2012

Focused attention, heart rate deceleration, and cognitive development in preterm and full-term infants
Developmental Psychobiology
Petrie Thomas, J.H. and Whitfield, M.F. and Oberlander, T.F. and Synnes, A.R. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1002/dev.20597
2012

Procedural pain and brain development in premature newborns
Annals of Neurology
Brummelte, S. and Grunau, R.E. and Chau, V. and Poskitt, K.J. and Brant, R. and Vinall, J. and Gover, A. and Synnes, A.R. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1002/ana.22267
2012

Single course of antenatal steroids did not alter cortisol in preterm infants up to 18 months
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics
Gover, A. and Brummelte, S. and Synnes, A.R. and Miller, S.P. and Brant, R. and Weinberg, J. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2012.02629.x
2012

Neonatal pain in relation to postnatal growth in infants born very preterm
Pain
Vinall, J. and Miller, S.P. and Chau, V. and Brummelte, S. and Synnes, A.R. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2012.02.007
2012

Survival without disability to age 5 years after neonatal caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association
Schmidt, B. and Anderson, P.J. and Doyle, L.W. and Dewey, D. and Grunau, R.E. and Asztalos, E.V. and Davis, P.G. and Tin, W. and Moddemann, D. and Solimano, A. and Ohlsson, A. and Barrington, K.J. and Roberts, R.S.
DOI: 10.1001/jama.2011.2024
2012

Magnetoencephalography reveals slowing of resting peak oscillatory frequency in children born very preterm
Pediatric Research
Doesburg, S.M. and Ribary, U. and Herdman, A.T. and Moiseev, A. and Cheung, T. and Miller, S.P. and Poskitt, K.J. and Weinberg, H. and Whitfield, M.F. and Synnes, A. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3182225a9e
2011

Declining cognitive development from 8 to 18months in preterm children predicts persisting higher parenting stress
Early Human Development
Brummelte, S. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A.R. and Whitfield, M.F. and Petrie-Thomas, J.
DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2011.01.030
2011

Altered long-range alpha-band synchronization during visual short-term memory retention in children born very preterm
NeuroImage
Doesburg, S.M. and Ribary, U. and Herdman, A.T. and Miller, S.P. and Poskitt, K.J. and Moiseev, A. and Whitfield, M.F. and Synnes, A. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.10.044
2011

Cortisol levels in relation to maternal interaction and child internalizing behavior in preterm and full-term children at 18 months corrected age
Developmental Psychobiology
Brummelte, S. and Grunau, R.E. and Zaidman-Zait, A. and Weinberg, J. and Nordstokke, D. and Cepeda, I.L.
DOI: 10.1002/dev.20511
2011

Preterm birth: Preterm cerebellar growth impairment after postnatal exposure to glucocorticoids
Science Translational Medicine
Tam, E.W.Y. and Chau, V. and Ferriero, D.M. and Barkovich, A.J. and Poskitt, K.J. and Studholme, C. and Fok, E.D.-Y. and Grunau, R.E. and Glidden, D.V. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3002884
2011

Antenatal depression and anxiety affect postpartum parenting stress: A longitudinal, prospective study
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
Misri, S. and Kendrick, K. and Oberlander, T.F. and Norris, S. and Tomfohr, L. and Zhang, H. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1177/070674371005500405
2010

Altered long-range phase synchronization and cortical activation in children born very preterm
IFMBE Proceedings
Doesburg, S.M. and Ribary, U. and Herdman, A.T. and Cheung, T. and Moiseev, A. and Weinberg, H. and Whitfield, M.F. and Synnes, A. and Liotti, M. and Weeks, D. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-12197-5_57
2010

School entry age outcomes for infants with birth weight =800 grams
Journal of Pediatrics
Synnes, A.R. and Anson, S. and Arkesteijn, A. and Butt, A. and Grunau, R.E. and Rogers, M. and Whitfield, M.F.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.06.016
2010

Ethics in neuroscience graduate training programs: Views and models from Canada
Mind, Brain, and Education
Lombera, S. and Fine, A. and Grunau, R.E. and Illes, J.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-228X.2009.01079.x
2010

Tractography-Based Quantitation of Corticospinal Tract Development in Premature Newborns
Journal of Pediatrics
Adams, E. and Chau, V. and Poskitt, K.J. and Grunau, R.E. and Synnes, A. and Miller, S.P.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.12.030
2010

Physiological correlates of memory recall in infancy: Vagal tone, cortisol, and imitation in preterm and full-term infants at 6 months
Infant Behavior and Development
Haley, D.W. and Grunau, R.E. and Weinberg, J. and Keidar, A. and Oberlander, T.F.
DOI: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.10.007
2010

Long-range synchronization and local desynchronization of alpha oscillations during visual short-term memory retention in children
Experimental Brain Research
Doesburg, S.M. and Herdman, A.T. and Ribary, U. and Cheung, T. and Moiseev, A. and Weinberg, H. and Liotti, M. and Weeks, D. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1007/s00221-009-2086-9
2010

Considerations for using sucrose to reduce procedural pain in preterm infants
Pediatrics
Holsti, L. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-2445
2010

Cortisol, behavior, and heart rate reactivity to immunization pain at 4 months corrected age in infants born very preterm
Clinical Journal of Pain
Grunau, R.E. and Tu, M.T. and Whitfield, M.F. and Oberlander, T.F. and Weinberg, J. and Yu, W. and Thiessen, P. and Gosse, G. and Scheifele, D.
DOI: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e3181e5bb00
2010

Prenatal alcohol exposure alters biobehavioral reactivity to pain in newborns
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Oberlander, T.F. and Jacobson, S.W. and Weinberg, J. and Grunau, R.E. and Molteno, C.D. and Jacobson, J.L.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01137.x
2010

Prenatal effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4), and maternal mood on child behavior at 3 years of age
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
Oberlander, T.F. and Papsdorf, M. and Brain, U.M. and Misri, S. and Ross, C. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.51
2010

Neonatal pain, parenting stress and interaction, in relation to cognitive and motor development at 8 and 18 months in preterm infants
Pain
Grunau, R.E. and Whitfield, M.F. and Petrie-Thomas, J. and Synnes, A.R. and Cepeda, I.L. and Keidar, A. and Rogers, M. and MacKay, M. and Hubber-Richard, P. and Johannesen, D.
DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2009.02.014
2009

Pain and distress reactivity and recovery as early predictors of temperament in toddlers born preterm
Early Human Development
Klein, V.C. and Gaspardo, C.M. and Martinez, F.E. and Grunau, R.E. and Linhares, M.B.M.
DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2009.06.001
2009

Prenatal exposure to maternal depression, neonatal methylation of human glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and infant cortisol stress responses
Epigenetics
Oberlander, T.F. and Weinberg, J. and Papsdorf, M. and Grunau, R. and Misri, S. and Devlin, A.M.
DOI: 10.4161/epi.3.2.6034
2008

Contingency learning and reactivity in preterm and full-term infants at 3 months
Infancy
Haley, D.W. and Grunau, R.E. and Oberlander, T.F. and Weinberg, J.
DOI: 10.1080/15250000802458682
2008

Long-term outcome after neonatal intraparenchymal echodensities with porencephaly
Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Sherlock, R.L. and Synnes, A.R. and Grunau, R.E. and Holsti, L. and Hubber-Richard, P. and Johannesen, D. and Whitfield, M.F.
DOI: 10.1136/adc.2006.110726
2008

Is it painful or not? Discriminant validity of the Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain (BIIP) scale
Clinical Journal of Pain
Holsti, L. and Grunau, R.E. and Oberlander, T.F. and Osiovich, H.
DOI: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e318158c5e5
2008

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in 3-month old infants with prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant exposure
Early Human Development
Oberlander, T.F. and Grunau, R. and Mayes, L. and Riggs, W. and Rurak, D. and Papsdorf, M. and Misri, S. and Weinberg, J.
DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2008.06.008
2008

Extremity movements help occupational therapists identify stress responses in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit: A systematic review
Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy
Holsti, L. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1177/000841740707400306
2007

Magnetoencephalography study of brain dynamics in young children born extremely preterm
International Congress Series
Cepeda, I.L. and Grunau, R.E. and Weinberg, H. and Herdman, A.T. and Cheung, T. and Liotti, M. and Amir, A. and Synnes, A. and Whitfield, M.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ics.2006.12.090
2007

Maternal stress and behavior modulate relationships between neonatal stress, attention, and basal cortisol at 8 months in preterm infants
Developmental Psychobiology
Mai, T.T. and Grunau, R.E. and Petrie-Thomas, J. and Haley, D.W. and Weinberg, J. and Whitfield, M.F.
DOI: 10.1002/dev.20204
2007

Initial validation of the Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain (BIIP)
Pain
Holsti, L. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2007.01.033
2007

Relationships between adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol are altered during clustered nursing care in preterm infants born at extremely low gestational age
Early Human Development
Holsti, L. and Weinberg, J. and Whitfield, M.F. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2006.08.005
2007

Externalizing and attentional behaviors in children of depressed mothers treated with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant during pregnancy
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
Oberlander, T.F. and Reebye, P. and Misri, S. and Papsdorf, M. and Kim, J. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.161.1.22
2007

Altered Basal Cortisol Levels at 3, 6, 8 and 18 Months in Infants Born at Extremely Low Gestational Age
Journal of Pediatrics
Grunau, R.E. and Haley, D.W. and Whitfield, M.F. and Weinberg, J. and Yu, W. and Thiessen, P.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.10.053
2007

Teenagers born at extremely low birth weight
Paediatrics and Child Health
Whitfield, M.F. and Grunau, R.E.
2006

A prospective controlled study of neurodevelopment in HIV-uninfected children exposed to combination antiretroviral drugs in pregnancy
Pediatrics
Alimenti, A. and Forbes, J.C. and Oberlander, T.F. and Money, D.M. and Grunau, R.E. and Papsdorf, M.P. and Maan, E. and Cole, L.J. and Burdge, D.R.
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-0525
2006

Biobehavioural reactivity to pain in preterm infants: A marker of neuromotor development
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Grunau, R.E. and Whitfield, M.F. and Fay, T. and Holsti, L. and Oberlander, T. and Rogers, M.L.
DOI: 10.1017/S0012162206001010
2006

Cortisol, contingency learning, and memory in preterm and full-term infants
Psychoneuroendocrinology
Haley, D.W. and Weinberg, J. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2005.06.007
2006

Internalizing behaviors in 4-year-old children exposed in utero to psychotropic medications
American Journal of Psychiatry
Misri, S. and Reebye, P. and Kendrick, K. and Carter, D. and Ryan, D. and Grunau, R.E. and Oberlander, T.F.
DOI: 10.1176/ajp.2006.163.6.1026
2006

Behavioral responses to pain are heightened after clustered care in preterm infants born between 30 and 32 weeks gestational age
Clinical Journal of Pain
Holsti, L. and Grunau, R.E. and Whifield, M.F. and Oberlander, T.F. and Lindh, V.
DOI: 10.1097/01.ajp.0000210921.10912.47
2006

Stereoselective disposition of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine during pregnancy and breast-feeding
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Kim, J. and Riggs, K.W. and Misri, S. and Kent, N. and Oberlander, T.F. and Grunau, R.E. and Fitzgerald, C. and Rurak, D.W.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02538.x
2006

Long-term consequences of pain in human neonates
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
Grunau, R.E. and Holsti, L. and Peters, J.W.B.
DOI: 10.1016/j.siny.2006.02.007
2006

Prior pain induces heightened motor responses during clustered care in preterm infants in the NICU
Early Human Development
Holsti, L. and Grunau, R.E. and Oberlander, T.F. and Whitfield, M.F.
DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2004.08.002
2005

Aerobic capacity, strength, flexibility, and activity level in unimpaired extremely low birth weight (=800 g) survivors at 17 years of age compared with term-born control subjects
Pediatrics
Rogers, M. and Fay, T.B. and Whitfield, M.F. and Tomlinson, J. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2004-1603
2005

Neonatal procedural pain exposure predicts lower cortisol and behavioral reactivity in preterm infants in the NICU
Pain
Grunau, R.E. and Holsti, L. and Haley, D.W. and Oberlander, T. and Weinberg, J. and Solimano, A. and Whitfield, M.F. and Fitzgerald, C. and Yu, W.
DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2004.10.020
2005

Pain reactivity in 2-month-old infants after prenatal and postnatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication exposure
Pediatrics
Oberlander, T.F. and Grunau, R.E. and Fitzgerald, C. and Papsdorf, M. and Rurak, D. and Riggs, W.
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2004-0420
2005

Body movements: An important additional factor in discriminating pain from stress in preterm infants
Clinical Journal of Pain
Holsti, L. and Grunau, R.E. and Oberlander, T.F. and Whitfield, M.F. and Weinberg, J.
DOI: 10.1097/01.ajp.0000146163.30776.44
2005

Psychosocial and academic characteristics of extremely low birth weight (=800 g) adolescents who are free of major impairment compared with term-born control subjects
Pediatrics
Grunau, R.E. and Whitfield, M.F. and Fay, T.B.
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2004-0932
2004

Does Prone or Supine Position Influence Pain Responses in Preterm Infants at 32 Weeks Gestational Age?
Clinical Journal of Pain
Grunau, R.E. and Linhares, M.B.M. and Holsti, L. and Oberlander, T.F. and Whitfield, M.F.
DOI: 10.1097/00002508-200403000-00003
2004

Specific newborn individualized developmental care and assessment program movements are associated with acute pain in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit
Pediatrics
Holsti, L. and Grunau, R.E. and Oberlander, T.F. and Whitfield, M.F.
DOI: 10.1542/peds.114.1.65
2004

Neonatal procedural pain and preterm infant cortisol response to novelty at 8 months.
Pediatrics
Grunau, R.E. and Weinberg, J. and Whitfield, M.F.
DOI: 10.1542/peds.114.1.e77
2004

Are there developmentally distinct motor indicators of pain in preterm infants?
Early Human Development
Morison, S.J. and Holsti, L. and Grunau, R.E. and Whitfield, M.F. and Oberlander, T.F. and Chan, H.W.P. and Williams, L.
DOI: 10.1016/S0378-3782(03)00044-6
2003

Neonatal Facial Coding System for Assessing Postoperative Pain in Infants: Item Reduction is Valid and Feasible
Clinical Journal of Pain
Peters, J.W.B. and Koot, H.M. and Grunau, R.E. and De Boer, J. and Van Druenen, M.J. and Tibboel, D. and Duivenvoorden, H.J.
DOI: 10.1097/00002508-200311000-00003
2003

Does parenchymal brain injury affect biobehavioral pain responses in very low birth weight infants at 32 weeks' postconceptional age?
Pediatrics
Oberlander, T.F. and Grunau, R.E. and Fitzgerald, C. and Whitfield, M.F.
DOI: 10.1542/peds.110.3.570
2002

Developmental coordination disorder in extremely low birth weight children at nine years
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
Holsti, L. and Grunau, R.V.E. and Whitfield, M.F.
DOI: 10.1097/00004703-200202000-00002
2002

Pain in vulnerable infants
Clinics in Perinatology
Stevens, B. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/S0095-5108(02)00023-4
2002

Early pain in preterm infants: A model of long-term effects
Clinics in Perinatology
Eckstein Grunau, R.
DOI: 10.1016/S0095-5108(02)00012-X
2002

Prolonged prenatal psychotropic medication exposure alters neonatal acute pain response
Pediatric Research
Oberlander, T.F. and Grunau, R.E. and Fitzgerald, C. and Ellwood, A.-L. and Misri, S. and Rurak, D. and Riggs, K.W.
DOI: 10.1203/00006450-200204000-00008
2002

Pattern of learning disabilities in children with extremely low birth weight and broadly average intelligence
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
Grunau, R.E. and Whitfield, M.F. and Davis, C.
DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.156.6.615
2002

Affect expression in prenatally psychotropic exposed and nonexposed mother-infant dyads
Infant Mental Health Journal
Reebye, P.N. and Morison, S.J. and Panikkar, H. and Misri, S. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1002/imhj.10025
2002

Preventive medicine
Primary Care - Clinics in Office Practice
Eckstein Grunau, R.
DOI: 10.1016/S0095-4543(02)00020-9
2002

Pain reactivity in former extremely low birth weight infants at corrected age 8 months compared with term born controls
Infant Behavior and Development
Eckstein Grunau, R. and Oberlander, T.F. and Whitfield, M.F. and Fitzgerald, C. and Morison, S.J. and Philip Saul, J.
DOI: 10.1016/S0163-6383(01)00065-0
2001

Consensus statement for the prevention and management of pain in the newborn
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
Anand, K.J.S. and Aynsley-Green, A. and Bancalari, E. and Benini, F. and Champion, G.D. and Craig, K.D. and Dangel, T.S. and Fournier-Charri{\`e}re, E. and Franck, L.S. and Grunau, R.E. and Hertel, S.A. and Jacqz-Aigrain, E. and Jorch, G. and Kopelman, B.I. and Koren, G. and Larsson, B. and Marlow, N. and McIntosh, N. and Ohlsson, A. and Olsson, G. and Porter, F. and Richter, R. and Stevens, B. and Taddio, A.
DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.155.2.173
2001

Demographic and therapeutic determinants of pain reactivity in very low birth weight neonates at 32 weeks' postconceptional age
Pediatrics
Grunau, R.E. and Oberlander, T.F. and Whitfield, M.F. and Fitzgerald, C. and Lee, S.K.
DOI: 10.1542/peds.107.1.105
2001

Relations between behavioral and cardiac autonomic reactivity to acute pain in preterm neonates
Clinical Journal of Pain
Morison, S.J. and Grunau, R.E. and Oberlander, T.F. and Whitfield, M.F.
DOI: 10.1097/00002508-200112000-00010
2001

Predicting IQ of biologically "at risk" children from age 3 to school entry: Sensitivity and specificity of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale IV
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
Grunau, R.E. and Whitfield, M.F. and Petrie, J.
DOI: 10.1097/00004703-200012000-00001
2000

Behavior, pain perception, and the extremely low-birth weight survivor
Clinics in Perinatology
Whitfield, M.F. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/S0095-5108(05)70026-9
2000

Biobehavioral pain responses in former extremely low birth weight infants at four months' corrected age
Pediatrics
Oberlander, T.F. and Grunau, R.E. and Whitfield, M.F. and Fitzgerald, C. and Pitfield, S. and Philip Saul, J.
DOI: 10.1542/peds.105.1.e6
2000

Are twitches, startles, and body movements pain indicators in extremely low birth weight infants?
Clinical Journal of Pain
Grunau, R.E. and Holsti, L. and Whitfield, M.F. and Ling, E.
DOI: 10.1097/00002508-200003000-00007
2000

Morphine pharmacokinetics and pain assessment in premature newborns
Journal of Pediatrics
Scott, C.S. and Riggs, K.W. and Ling, E.W. and Fitzgerald, C.E. and Hill, M.L. and Grunau, R.V.E. and Solimano, A. and Craig, K.D.
DOI: 10.1016/s0022-3476(99)70163-0
1999

Long-term effects of pain in infants
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
Porter, F.L. and Grunau, R.E. and Anand, K.J.S.
DOI: 10.1097/00004703-199908000-00008
1999

The developmental character of cardiac autonomic responses to an acute noxious event in 4-and 8-month-old healthy infants
Pediatric Research
Oberlander, T.F. and Grunau, R.E. and Pitfield, S. and Whitfield, M.F. and Saul, J.P.
DOI: 10.1203/00006450-199904010-00011
1999

Long-term effects of pain
Research and Clinical Forums
Grunau, R.E.
1998

Bedside application of the neonatal facial coding system in pain assessment of premature neonates
Pain
Grunau, R.E. and Oberlander, T. and Holsti, L. and Whitfield, M.F.
DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3959(98)00046-3
1998

Children's judgements about pain at age 8-10 years: Do extremely low birthweight (= 1000 g) children differ from full birthweight peers
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines
Grunau, R.E. and Whitfield, M.F. and Petrie, J.
DOI: 10.1017/S0021963098002406
1998

Judging pain in infants: Behavioural, contextual, and developmental determinants
Pain
Hadjistavropoulos, H.D. and Craig, K.D. and Grunau, R.E. and Whitfield, M.F.
DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3959(97)00113-9
1997

Extremely premature (= 800 g) schoolchildren: Multiple areas of hidden disability
Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Whitfield, M.F. and Grunau, R.V.E. and Holsti, L.
DOI: 10.1136/fn.77.2.F85
1997

The expression of pain in infants and toddlers: Developmental changes in facial action
Pain
Lilley, C.M. and Craig, K.D. and Grunau, R.E.
DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3959(97)00034-1
1997

Research

Current Projects
The focus of my transdisciplinary research program is biobehavioural reactivity and infant neurodevelopment, broadly encompassing multiple aspects of infant arousal, self-regulation, attention, cognition and brain development in preterm and term born infants. My research program is currently funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH, USA) and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR).

Clinical practice of pain management in neonatal intensive care Unit (NICU) changed over the years from no concern with pain to widespread use of analgesia and sedation, however there are major gaps in knowledge of pain assessment in immature infants, and in long term effects of pain-related stress and pain medications. With the goal to improve pain assessment, we recently confirmed that, along with recognized facial and heart rate changes, there are motor stress behaviors unique to premature infants (e.g. backward splaying of fingers). Conversely, other behaviors such as twitches and startles reflect sleep/waking state, and do not appear to be stress or pain cues. We have shown that greater exposure to neonatal pain-related stress in the NICU (adjusted for multiple medical and neonatal confounding factors) is associated with altered brain microstructure, cortico-spinal tract development, cortical thinning and resting oscillatory activity, stress hormone (cortisol) expression, cognitive development and internalizing behaviors, in infancy and at school-age. Importantly, greater morphine exposure does not appear to prevent adverse long term sequelae, and may impair cerebellar growth.

In two longitudinal cohorts followed since birth, we build on our extensive neonatal medical and nursing data to examine behavior, neurodevelopment, stress regulation, parent-infant interaction at multiple ages from infancy to school-age. Further, in collaboration with the Child and Family Brain Imaging Facility and Brain mapping Unit, our group undertakes brain imaging (MRI, DTI), and in collaboration with Simon Fraser University - magnetoencephalography (MEG) at school-age. Furthermore, we are studying to what extent caregiver interaction style and parenting stress may modify infant behavior, as well as ameliorate or exacerbate effects of early stress/pain experience in preterm infants.

In collaboration with geneticists in CFRI, we are beginning to address gene X environment (early stress) interactions, as well as epigenetics.

Grants

CIHR Operating Grant – Project: "Analgesia and sedation in the preterm neonate: brain development and outcome" (2014-2020)

CIHR Operating Grant - Project: "Stress, Brain and Neurodevelopment in Children Born Preterm" (2018-2022)

Honours & Awards

Jeffrey Lawson Award for Advocacy in Children’s Pain Relief, American Pain Society 2018

Rovee-Collier Mentor Award, International Society for Developmental Psychobiology, 2018

Outstanding Pain Mentorship Award, Canadian Pain Society 2019

Distinguished Career Award, International Association for the Study of Pain SIG Pain in Childhood 2019

Senior Scholar, Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research, 2001 - 2006

Senior Scholar, Human Early Learning Partnership, 2007 - 2009

Research Group Members

Evelyn Armour, Volunteer
Mary Beckingham, Research Assistant
Cecil Ming Yeung Chau, Research Manager
Connie Che, Research Nurse
Kenny Fok, Research Assistant
Vicki Goh, Research Nurse
Eddie Kwan, Visiting Scholar
Mia McLean, Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Hannah Phillips, Graduate Student
Janet Rigney, Research Coordinator
Victoria Tapics, Research Respiratory Therapist