• Green, Tim

    Affiliate Investigator, BC Children's Hospital

    Associate Professor, Faculty of Land & Food Systems, University of British Columbia

    Degrees / Designations
    B.Sc., M.Sc., PhD
    Primary Area of Research
    Healthy Starts
    Secondary Area(s) of Research
    Lab Phone
    Mailing Address
    University of British Columbia
    Room FNH 245, 2205 East Mall
    Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4
    Affiliate Websites
    Research Areas
    Vitamin and mineral requirements during pregnancy and their influence on pregnancy and child outcomes.

    Optimal nutrition during pregnancy is important for healthy babies and children. My interests are focused on how maternal micronutrient status influences birth and childhood outcomes.

    My long-term research goals are to use existing cohorts, in which components of maternal diet, particularly micronutrients, assessed by dietary intake methodologies or by biomarkers, are compared to pregnancy outcomes and subsequent disease risk. In addition, genotyping mother and infant will allow the assessment of the potential interaction between maternal diet, variation in genes, and outcome.

    My research will include clinical trials to rigorously test these associations as well as dose response trials will to determine requirements or optimal intakes of dietary constituents during pregnancy.

    Current Projects
    • Sheila Innis (Co-Investigator) and Vancouver Public Health Dietitians to determine whether pregnant women in Vancouver receive enough vitamin D. Factors that influence vitamin D status such as ethnicity, sunlight exposure, and season will also be explored.

    • Antonia Shand, Peter von Dadelszen, and Sheila Innis (co-Investigators) investigation into vitamin D status in early pregnancy influences subsequent risk of pre-eclampsia (hypertension of pregnancy) in women at high-risk for this condition
    • Beverly Anne Biggs and Gerard Casey (University of Melbourne) to examine examine the effectiveness of weekly iron and folate supplements in reducing anaemia in women of reproductive age in in a rural province of Vietnam.
    Selected Publications
    • Chebaya P, Karakochuk CD, March KM, Chen NN, Stamm RA, Kroeun H, Sophonneary P, Borath M, Shahab-Ferdows S, Hampel D, Barr SL, Lamers Y, Houghton LA, Allen LH, Green TJ, Whitfield KC. "Correlations between Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Vitamin B12 Concentrations among Mother-Infant Dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Prey Veng, Cambodia: An Exploratory Analysis." Nutrients. 2017 Apr 4. PMID: 28287490

    • Jeruszka- Bielak M., Isman C, Schroder TH, Li W, Green TJ, Lamers Y. "South Asian Ethnicity is Related to the Highest Risk of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Pregnant Canadian Women." Nutrients. 2017 Apr 04. PMID: 28333089

    • Feldman F, Moore C, Silva Ld, Gaspard G, Gustafson L, Singh S, Barr SI, Kitts DD, Weiler HA, Green TJ. Response to tkachuk and colleagues. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Apr;63(4):835-7. doi: 10.1111/jgs.13363. PubMed PMID: 25900510.

    • Whitfield KC, Karakochuk CD, Liu Y, McCann A, Talukder A, Kroeun H, Ward M, McNulty H, Lynd LD, Kitts DD, Li-Chan EC, McLean J, Green TJ. Poor thiamin and riboflavin status is common among women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia. J Nutr. 2015 Mar;145(3):628-33. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.203604. Epub 2015 Jan 7. PubMed PMID: 25733481

    • Karakochuk CD, Janmohamed A, Whitfield KC, Barr SI, Vercauteren SM, Kroeun H, Talukder A, McLean J, Green TJ. Evaluation of two methods to measure hemoglobin concentration among women with genetic hemoglobin disorders in Cambodia: a method-comparison study. Clin Chim Acta. 2015 Feb 20;441:148-55. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2014.12.021. Epub 2014 Dec 24. PubMed PMID: 25542983.

    • Karakochuk CD, Whitfield KC, Barr SI, Lamers Y, Devlin AM, Vercauteren SM, Kroeun H, Talukder A, McLean J, Green TJ. Genetic hemoglobin disorders rather than iron deficiency are a major predictor of hemoglobin concentration in women of reproductive age in rural prey Veng, Cambodia. J Nutr. 2015 Jan;145(1):134-42. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.198945. Epub 2014 Nov 19. PubMed PMID: 25527668

    • Liu Y, Green TJ, Kitts DD. Stability of microencapsulated L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate in fortified noodles. Food Chem. 2015 Mar 15;171:206-11. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.129. Epub 2014 Sep 10. PubMed PMID: 25308661

    • McDonald CM, McLean J, Kroeun H, Talukder A, Lynd LD, Green TJ. Household food insecurity and dietary diversity as correlates of maternal and child undernutrition in rural Cambodia. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Feb;69(2):242-6. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.161. Epub 2014 Aug 13. PubMed PMID: 25117993

    • Feldman F, Moore C, da Silva L, Gaspard G, Gustafson L, Singh S, Barr SI, Kitts DD, Li W, Weiler HA, Green TJ. Effectiveness and safety of a high-dose weekly vitamin D (20,000 IU) protocol in older adults living in residential care. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Aug;62(8):1546-50. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12927. Epub 2014 Jul 15. PubMed PMID: 25039913

    • Wingate KE, Jacobson K, Issenman R, Carroll M, Barker C, Israel D, Brill H, Weiler H, Barr SI, Li W, Lyon MR, Green TJ. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in children with Crohn's disease supplemented with either 2000 or 400 IU daily for 6 months: a randomized controlled study. J Pediatr. 2014 Apr;164(4):860-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.11.071. Epub 2014 Jan 11. PubMed PMID: 24423431

    • Hodson L, Eyles HC, McLachlan KJ, Bell ML, Green TJ, Skeaff CM. Plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids reflect intakes of saturated and n-6 PUFA within a similar time frame. J Nutr. 2014 Jan;144(1):33-41. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.183749. Epub 2013 Nov 13. PubMed PMID: 24225449

    • Sulistyoningrum DC, Gasevic D, Green TJ, Lear SA, Devlin AM. Adiposity and the relationship between vitamin D and blood pressure. Metabolism. 2013 Dec;62(12):1795-802. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2013.07.009. Epub 2013 Aug 27. PubMed PMID: 23987237

    • Glier MB, Green TJ, Devlin AM. Methyl nutrients, DNA methylation, and cardiovascular disease. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Jan;58(1):172-82. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201200636. Epub 2013 May 10. Review. PubMed PMID: 23661599

    • Green TJ, Liu Y, Dadgar S, Li W, Böhni R, Kitts DD. Wheat rolls fortified with microencapsulated L-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid or equimolar folic acid increase blood folate concentrations to a similar extent in healthy men and women. J Nutr. 2013 Jun;143(6):867-71. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.174268. Epub 2013 Apr 24. PubMed PMID: 23616513

    • Liu Y, Green TJ, Wong P, Kitts DD. Microencapsulation of L-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid with ascorbate improves stability in baked bread products. J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Jan 9;61(1):247-54. doi: 10.1021/jf304229b. Epub 2012 Dec 21. PubMed PMID: 23234354

    • Green TJ, Li W, Barr SI, Jahani M, Chapman GE. Vitamin D supplementation is associated with higher serum 25OHD in Asian and White infants living in Vancouver, Canada. Matern Child Nutr. 2015 Apr;11(2):253-9. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12008. Epub 2012 Oct 15. PubMed PMID: 23061469

    • Sulistyoningrum DC, Green TJ, Lear SA, Devlin AM. Ethnic-specific differences in vitamin D status is associated with adiposity. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43159. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043159. Epub 2012 Aug 29. PubMed PMID: 22952641;PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3430647.

    • Bradbury KE, Williams SM, Green TJ, McMahon JA, Mann JI, Knight RG, Skeaff CM. Differences in erythrocyte folate concentrations in older adults reached steady-state within one year in a two-year, controlled, 1 mg/d folate supplementation trial. J Nutr. 2012 Sep;142(9):1633-7. doi: 10.3945/jn.112.161562. Epub 2012 Jul 18. PubMed PMID: 22810981.

    • Tomiuk S, Liu Y, Green TJ, King MJ, Finglas PM, Kitts DD. Studies on the retention of microencapsulated l-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in baked bread using skim milk powder. Food Chem. 2012 Jul 15;133(2):249-55. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.12.073. Epub 2012 Jan 17. PubMed PMID: 25683392

    • Bradbury KE, Skeaff CM, Crowe FL, Green TJ, Hodson L. Serum fatty acid reference ranges: percentiles from a New Zealand national nutrition survey. Nutrients. 2011 Jan;3(1):152-63. doi: 10.3390/nu3010152. Epub 2011 Jan 20. PubMed PMID: 22254080; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3257726.

    • Crocker B, Green TJ, Barr SI, Beckingham B, Bhagat R, Dabrowska B, Douthwaite R, Evanson C, Friesen R, Hydamaka K, Li W, Simmons K, Tse L. Very high vitamin D supplementation rates among infants aged 2 months in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada. BMC Public Health. 2011 Dec 7;11:905. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-905. PubMed PMID: 22151789; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3265491.

    • Hien VT, Lam NT, Skeaff CM, Todd J, McLean JM, Green TJ. Vitamin D status of pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age living in Hanoi City and the Hai Duong province of Vietnam. Matern Child Nutr. 2012 Oct;8(4):533-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8709.2011.00327.x. Epub 2011 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: 22117931

    • Li W, Green TJ, Innis SM, Barr SI, Whiting SJ, Shand A, von Dadelszen P. Suboptimal vitamin D levels in pregnant women despite supplement use. Can J Public Health. 2011 Jul-Aug;102(4):308-12. PubMed PMID: 21913590

    • Kacinik V, Lyon M, Purnama M, Reimer RA, Gahler R, Green TJ, Wood S. Effect of PGX, a novel functional fibre supplement, on subjective ratings of appetite in overweight and obese women consuming a 3-day structured, low-calorie diet. Nutr Diabetes. 2011 Dec 12;1:e22. doi: 10.1038/nutd.2011.18. PubMed PMID: 23154443; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3302126.

    • Venn BJ, Perry T, Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Aitken W, Moore NJ, Mann JI, Wallace AJ, Monro J, Bradshaw A, Brown RC, Skidmore PM, Doel K, O'Brien K, Frampton C, Williams S. The effect of increasing consumption of pulses and wholegrains in obese people: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Aug;29(4):365-72. PubMed PMID: 21041811.

    • Shand AW, Nassar N, Von Dadelszen P, Innis SM, Green TJ. Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a group at high risk for pre-eclampsia. BJOG. 2010 Dec;117(13):1593-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02742.x. Epub 2010 Oct 13. PubMed PMID: 21040394

    • Green TJ, Barr SI, Chapman GE. The majority of older British Columbians take vitamin D-containing supplements. Can J Public Health. 2010 May-Jun;101(3):246-50. PubMed PMID: 20737819

    • Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Rockell JE. Milk fortified with the current adequate intake for vitamin D (5 microg) increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D compared to control milk but is not sufficient to prevent a seasonal decline in young women. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(2):195-9. PubMed PMID: 20460232

    • Vatanparast H, Calvo MS, Green TJ, Whiting SJ. Despite mandatory fortification of staple foods, vitamin D intakes of Canadian children and adults are inadequate. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jul;121(1-2):301-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.03.079. Epub 2010 Apr 21. PubMed PMID: 20399268

    • Heere C, Skeaff CM, Waqatakirewa L, Vatucawaqa P, Khan AN, Green TJ. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of Indigenous-Fijian and Fijian-Indian women. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(1):43-8. PubMed PMID: 20199986

    • Green TJ, Skeaff CM, McMahon JA, Venn BJ, Williams SM, Devlin AM, Innis SM. Homocysteine-lowering vitamins do not lower plasma S-adenosylhomocysteine in older people with elevated homocysteine concentrations. Br J Nutr. 2010 Jun;103(11):1629-34. doi: 10.1017/S0007114509993552. Epub 2010 Jan 21. PubMed PMID: 20089204

    • Devlin AM, Singh R, Bottiglieri T, Innis SM, Green TJ. Hepatic acyl-coenzyme a:cholesterol acyltransferase-2 expression is decreased in mice with hyperhomocysteinemia. J Nutr. 2010 Feb;140(2):231-7. doi: 10.3945/jn.109.112920. Epub 2009 Dec 16. PubMed PMID: 20018805

    • Bradbury KE, Skeaff CM, Green TJ, Gray AR, Crowe FL. The serum fatty acids myristic acid and linoleic acid are better predictors of serum cholesterol concentrations when measured as molecular percentages rather than as absolute concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Feb;91(2):398-405. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28159. Epub 2009 Dec 2. PubMed PMID: 19955401

    • Ning B, Brown RC, Venn BJ, Williams SM, Green TJ. The effect of the fat and carbohydrate contents in the evening meal preceding GI testing on GI. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Feb;64(2):224-6. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2009.133. Epub 2009 Nov 25. PubMed PMID: 19935822

    • Whitfield KC, Karakochuk CD, Kroeun H, Sokhoing L, Chan BB, Borath M, Sophonneary P, Moore K, Tong JK, McLean J, Talukder A, Lynd LD, Li-Chan EC, Kitts DD, Green TJ. Household Consumption of Thiamin-Fortified Fish Sauce Increases Erythrocyte Thiamin Concentrations among Rural Cambodian Women and Their Children Younger Than 5 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial. J Pediatr. 2016 Dec 6 PMID:27939124

    • Whitfield KC, Wozniak R, Pradinuk M, Karakochuk CD, Anabwani G, Daly Z, MacLeod SM, Larson CP, Green TJ. Anthropometric measures are simple and accurate paediatric weight-prediction proxies in resource-poor settings with a high HIV prevalence. Arch Dis Child. 2017 Jan PMID:27073160

    • Karakochuk CD, Whitfield KC, Rappaport AI, Barr SI, Vercauteren SM, McLean J, Hou K, Talukder A, Houghton LA, Bailey KB, Boy E, Green TJ. Comparison of four immunoassays to measure serum ferritin concentrations and iron deficiency prevalence among non-pregnant Cambodian women and Congolese children. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2017 Jan PMID:27337742 

    Honours & Awards
    • Stars in Global Health seed grant, Grand Challenges Canada, 2014

    • NZ Nutrition Foundation’s Nutritionist Development Award, 2000

    • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Post Doctoral Fellowship, 1997-1999

    • Ontario Graduate Scholarship, 1995-1996

    • Natural Sciences & Engineering Research Council PGS, 1993-1995

    • Canadian Society for Nutritional Sciences Gold Winner of The Mary Ecclestonc Graduate Student Award, 1993

    • University Of Saskatchewan Graduate Scholarship, 1992-1993

    • Hope Hunt Scholarship, University of Saskatchewan, 1992

    • University Of Saskatchewan Graduate Scholarship, 1991-1992

    Research Group Members