Our work integrates behavioural, neuroanatomical, and genetic approaches to study cognitive abilities (called ‘executive functions’) dependent on prefrontal cortex (PFC) from their earliest beginnings throughout the lifespan in clinical and "normal" populations. Our methods include: neurocognitive testing, even of infants; functional neuroimaging (fMRI); preschool and school interventions; and molecular genetic analyses. We study the neural bases, genetic and neurochemical modulation, modification by the environment of executive functions and how they can become derailed in disorders. We hope our work might aid the understanding, prevention, and treatment of major mental disorders. Our work has already led to worldwide improvements in the treatment of a genetic disorder (PKU) and a developmental disorder (ADHD), thereby improving children's lives. Our research also has educational implications and has affected early education worldwide.


Review of the evidence on, and fundamental questions about, efforts to improve executive functions, including working memory
Cognitive and Working Memory Training
DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199974467.003.0008

Randomized control trial of Tools of the Mind: Marked benefits to kindergarten children and their teachers
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222447

Aerobic-Exercise and resistance-training interventions have been among the least effective ways to improve executive functions of any method tried thus far
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Adele Diamond and Daphne S. Ling
DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.05.001

Effects of physical activity interventions on cognitive and academic performance in children and adolescents: a novel combination of a systematic review and recommendations from an expert panel
British Journal of Sports Medicine
DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2017-098136

Maturational Changes in Human Dorsal and Ventral Visual Networks
Cerebral Cortex
DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhz053

Children's stress regulation mediates the association between prenatal maternal mood and child executive functions for boys, but not girls
Development and Psychopathology
Regula Neuenschwander and Kaia Hookenson and Ursula Brain and Ruth E. Grunau and Angela M. Devlin and Joanne Weinberg and Adele Diamond and Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1017/s095457941800041x

Maternal depression trajectories from pregnancy to 3 years postpartum are associated with children’s behavior and executive functions at 3 and 6 years
Archives of Women's Mental Health
DOI: 10.1007/s00737-017-0803-0

Is more time in general music class associated with stronger extra-musical outcomes in kindergarten?
Early Childhood Research Quarterly
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2017.12.004

Conclusions about interventions, programs, and approaches for improving executive functions that appear justified and those that, despite much hype, do not
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Adele Diamond and Daphne S. Ling
DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2015.11.005

Do children need reminders on the day–night task, or simply some way to prevent them from responding too quickly?
Cognitive Development
Daphne S. Ling and Cole Davies Wong and Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2015.10.003

Human-animal interaction and the development of executive functions.
The Social Neurosceince of Human-Animal Interaction
DOI: 10.1037/14856-004

Why assessing and improving executive functions early in life is critical
Executive Function in Preschool-age Children: Integrating Measurement, Neurodevelopment and Translational Research
DOI: 10.13140/rg.2.1.2644.6483

Why improving and assessing executive functions early in life is critical.
Executive function in preschool-age children: Integrating measurement, neurodevelopment, and translational research.
DOI: 10.1037/14797-002

Research that Helps Move Us Closer to a World Where Each Child Thrives
Research in Human Development
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1080/15427609.2015.1068034

Enhancing cognitive and social–emotional development through a simple-to-administer mindfulness-based school program for elementary school children: A randomized controlled trial.
Developmental Psychology
Kimberly A. Schonert-Reichl and Eva Oberle and Molly Stewart Lawlor and David Abbott and Kimberly Thomson and Tim F. Oberlander and Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1037/a0038454

Effects of physical exercise on executive functions: Going beyond simply moving to moving with thought
Annals of Sports Medicine and Researc
PubMed: 26000340

Prefrontal Cortex Development and Development of Cognitive Function
International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
Robbin Gibb and Bryan Kolb
DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-08-097086-8.55044-2

A comparative study of the neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive phenotype in two microdeletion syndromes: Velocardiofacial (22q11.2 deletion) and Williams (7q11.23 deletion) syndromes
European Psychiatry
O. Zarchi and A. Diamond and R. Weinberger and D. Abbott and M. Carmel and A. Frisch and E. Michaelovsky and R. Gruber and T. Green and A. Weizman and D. Gothelf
DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2013.07.001

Whether coordinative (soccer) exercise improves executive functioning in kindergarten children has yet to be demonstrated
Experimental Brain Research
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1007/s00221-014-3920-2

An effect of inhibitory load in children while keeping working memory load constant
Frontiers in Psychology
Andy Wright and Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00213

Want to Optimize Executive Functions and Academic Outcomes? Simple, Just Nourish the Human Spirit
Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1002/9781118732373.ch7

Executive Functions
Annual Review of Psychology
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750

Prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant exposure and serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4) influence executive functions at 6 years of age
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Whitney M. Weikum and Ursula Brain and Cecil M. Y. Chau and Ruth E. Grunau and W. Thomas Boyce and Adele Diamond and Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2013.00180

Activities and Programs That Improve Children’s Executive Functions
Current Directions in Psychological Science
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1177/0963721412453722

How I came full circle from the social end of psychology, to neuroscience, and back again, in an effort to understand the development of cognitive control
Malleable Minds: Translating Insights from Psychology and Neuroscience to Gifted Education
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2972.3284

Refining the understanding of inhibitory processes: how response prepotency is created and overcome
Developmental Science
Andrew Simpson and Kevin J. Riggs and Sarah R. Beck and Sarah L. Gorniak and Yvette Wu and David Abbott and Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01105.x

Martial Arts Research: Weak Evidence--Response
A. Diamond and K. Lee
DOI: 10.1126/science.334.6054.311-a

Interventions Shown to Aid Executive Function Development in Children 4 to 12 Years Old
A. Diamond and K. Lee
DOI: 10.1126/science.1204529

Biological and social influences on cognitive control processes dependent on prefrontal cortex
Gene Expression to Neurobiology and Behavior: Human Brain Development and Developmental Disorders
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-444-53884-0.00032-4

The Effect of Methylphenidate on Prefrontal Cognitive Functioning, Inattention, and Hyperactivity in Velocardiofacial Syndrome
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Tamar Green and Ronnie Weinberger and Adele Diamond and Michael Berant and Leora Hirschfeld and Amos Frisch and Omer Zarchi and Abraham Weizman and Doron Gothelf
DOI: 10.1089/cap.2011.0042

Memory Maintenance and Inhibitory Control Differentiate from Early Childhood to Adolescence
Developmental Neuropsychology
Yee Lee Shing and Ulman Lindenberger and Adele Diamond and Shu-Chen Li and Matthew C. Davidson
DOI: 10.1080/87565641.2010.508546

The Evidence Base for Improving School Outcomes by Addressing the Whole Child and by Addressing Skills and Attitudes, Not Just Content
Early Education & Development
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1080/10409289.2010.514522

When in competition against engrained habits, is conscious representation sufficient or is inhibition of the habit also needed?
Developmental Science
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00773.x

All or none hypothesis: A global-default mode that characterizes the brain and mind.
Developmental Psychology
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1037/a0014025

The interplay of biology and the environment broadly defined.
Developmental Psychology
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1037/a0014601

Biological processes in prevention and intervention: The promotion of self-regulation as a means of preventing school failure
Development and Psychopathology
Clancy Blair and Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1017/s0954579408000436

Contributions of Neuroscience to Our Understanding of Cognitive Development
Current Directions in Psychological Science
Adele Diamond and Dima Amso
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00563.x

Minding Controls in Curriculum Study
J. Mercer; and A. Diamond
DOI: 10.1126/science.319.5867.1185

THE EARLY YEARS: Preschool Program Improves Cognitive Control
A. Diamond and W. S. Barnett and J. Thomas and S. Munro
DOI: 10.1126/science.1151148

Consequences of Variations in Genes that affect Dopamine in Prefrontal Cortex
Cerebral Cortex
A. Diamond
DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhm082

Interrelated and interdependent
Developmental Science
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00578.x

Bootstrapping conceptual deduction using physical connection: rethinking frontal cortex
Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2006.03.003

The Early Development of Executive Functions
Lifespan CognitionMechanisms of Change
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169539.003.0006

Development of cognitive control and executive functions from 4 to 13 years: Evidence from manipulations of memory, inhibition, and task switching
Matthew C. Davidson and Dima Amso and Loren Cruess Anderson and Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.02.006

Preschool Children's Performance in Task Switching on the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task: Separating the Dimensions Aids the Ability to Switch
Developmental Neuropsychology
Adele Diamond and Stephanie M. Carlson and Danielle M. Beck
DOI: 10.1207/s15326942dn2802_7

Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): A neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity)
Development and Psychopathology
DOI: 10.1017/s0954579405050388

Not Quite as Grown-Up as We Like to Think
Psychological Science
Adele Diamond and Natasha Kirkham
DOI: 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2005.01530.x

Color–object interference in young children: A Stroop effect in children 3½–6½ years old
Cognitive Development
Meredith B. Prevor and Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2005.04.001

Executive Functioning in Preschoolers: Reducing the Inhibitory Demands of the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task
Developmental Neuropsychology
David A. C. Rennie and Rebecca Bull and Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1207/s15326942dn2601_4

Developmental cognitive neuroscience: progress and potential
Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Yuko Munakata and B.J. Casey and Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2004.01.005

Genetic and Neurochemical Modulation of Prefrontal Cognitive Functions in Children
American Journal of Psychiatry
Adele Diamond and Lisa Briand and John Fossella and Lorrie Gehlbach
DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.1.125

Sorting between theories of perseveration: performance in conflict tasks requires memory, attention and inhibition
Developmental Science
Natasha Z. Kirkham and Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1111/1467-7687.00303

Helping children apply their knowledge to their behavior on a dimension-switching task
Developmental Science
Natasha Z. Kirkham and Loren Cruess and Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1111/1467-7687.00300

Fast mapping of multiple words: Insights into when “the information provided” does and does not equal “the information perceived”
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
Krista M. Wilkinson and Erin Ross and Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1016/j.appdev.2003.09.006

Early success in using the relation between stimuli and rewards to deduce an abstract rule: Perceived physical connection is key.
Developmental Psychology
Adele Diamond and Eun Young Lee and Michael Hayden
DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.39.5.825

Normal Development of Prefrontal Cortex from Birth to Young Adulthood: Cognitive Functions, Anatomy, and Biochemistry
Principles of Frontal Lobe Function
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195134971.003.0029

Conditions under which young children can hold two rules in mind and inhibit a prepotent response.
Developmental Psychology
Adele Diamond and Natasha Kirkham and Dima Amso
DOI: 10.1037//0012-1649.38.3.352

Looking closely at infants' performance and experimental procedures in the A-not-B task
Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1017/s0140525x01253916

A Model System for Studying the Role of Dopamine in Prefrontal Cortex During Early Development in Humans
Brain Development and Cognition: A Reader
DOI: 10.1002/9780470753507.ch22

Inability of Five-Month-Old Infants to Retrieve a Contiguous Object: A Failure of Conceptual Understanding or of Control of Action?
Child Development
Adele Diamond and EunYoung Lee
DOI: 10.1111/1467-8624.00241

Close Interrelation of Motor Development and Cognitive Development and of the Cerebellum and Prefrontal Cortex
Child Development
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1111/1467-8624.00117

Toward an Understanding of the Human Frontal Lobes.
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1037/002307

Cognitive deficits in a genetic mouse model of the most common biochemical cause of human mental retardation
Journal of Neuroscience

Early developments in the ability to understand the relation between stimulus and reward.
Developmental Psychology
Adele Diamond and Anne Churchland and Loren Cruess and Natasha Z. Kirkham
DOI: 10.1037//0012-1649.35.6.1507

Understanding the A-not-B Error: Working memory vs. reinforced response, or active trace vs. latent trace
Developmental Science
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1111/1467-7687.00022

Evidence for the importance of dopamine for prefrontal cortex functions early in life
The Prefrontal CortexExecutive and Cognitive Functions
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524410.003.0011

Prefrontal Cortex Cognitive Deficits in Children Treated Early and Continuously for PKU
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
Adele Diamond and Meredith B. Prevor and Glenda Callender and Donald P. Druin
DOI: 10.2307/1166208

Development of an aspect of executive control: Development of the abilities to remember what I said and to “Do as I say, not as I do”
Developmental Psychobiology
Adele Diamond and Colleen Taylor
DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1098-2302(199605)29:43.3.co;2-c

Impaired sensitivity to visual contrast in children treated early and continuously for phenylketonuria
Adele Diamond and Chaya Herzberg
DOI: 10.1093/brain/119.2.523

Assessing cognitive function in animal models of mental retardation
Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews
Barbara J. Strupp and Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1098-2779(1996)2:43.0.co;2-o

Evidence of Robust Recognition Memory Early in Life Even When Assessed by Reaching Behavior
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1006/jecp.1995.1020

The relationship between cognition and action: performance of children 312–7 years old on a stroop- like day-night test
Cherie L. Gerstadt and Yoon Joo Hong and Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1016/0010-0277(94)90068-x

An animal model of early-treated PKU
Journal of Neuroscience

AB with multiple wells: I. Why are multiple wells sometimes easier than two wells? II. Memory or memory + inhibition?
Developmental Psychology
Adele Diamond and Lisa Cruttenden and Deborah Neiderman
DOI: 10.1037//0012-1649.30.2.192

Phenylalanine levels of 6-10mg/dl may not be as benign as once thought
Acta Paediatrica
A Diamond
DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1994.tb13462.x

Young children's performance on a task sensitive to the memory functions of the medial temporal lobe in adults: The delayed nonmatching-to-sample task reveals problems that are due to non-memory-related task demands.
Behavioral Neuroscience
Adele Diamond and Carolyn Towle and Kathryn Boyer
DOI: 10.1037//0735-7044.108.4.659

Rate of Maturation of the Hippocampus and the Developmental Progression of Children's Performance on the Delayed Non-Matching to Sample and Visual Paired Comparison Tasks
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1990.tb48904.x

Developmental Time Course in Human Infants and Infant Monkeys, and the Neural Bases of, Inhibitory Control in Reaching
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1990.tb48913.x

The Development and Neural Bases of Memory Functions as Indexed by the AB and Delayed Response Tasks in Human Infants and Infant Monkeys
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1990.tb48900.x

Development as progressive inhibitory control of action: retrieval of a contiguous object
Cognitive Development
Adele Diamond and Jeanne Gilbert
DOI: 10.1016/0885-2014(89)90007-5

The performance of human infants on a measure of frontal cortex function, the delayed response task
Developmental Psychobiology
Adele Diamond and Bertha Doar
DOI: 10.1002/dev.420220307

Successful performance by monkeys with lesions of the hippocampal formation on AB and object retrieval, two tasks that mark developmental changes in human infants.
Behavioral Neuroscience
Adele Diamond and Stuart Zola-Morgan and Larry R. Squire
DOI: 10.1037//0735-7044.103.3.526

Comparison of human infants and rhesus monkeys on Piaget's AB task: evidence for dependence on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
Experimental Brain Research
A. Diamond and P.S. Goldman-Rakic
DOI: 10.1007/bf00248277

Abilities and Neural Mechanisms Underlying AB Performance
Child Development
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.2307/1130330

Development of the Ability to Use Recall to Guide Action, as Indicated by Infants' Performance on AB
Child Development
Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1985.tb00160.x


Current Projects
What Helps and what Hinders Executive Functions during Adolescence, and do Executive Functions in Middle Childhood Predict Academic Achievement and Well-being during Adolescence (click here)

Current Projects
Possible Benefits of Beloved Music with or without Social Interaction or Beloved Literature (Poetry and/or Stories) for Adults Experiencing Mild Cognitive Decline (click here)

Current Projects
Effects of Low-dose versus Normal-dose Psychostimulants on Executive Functions in Children with ADHD (click here)