Overview

X chromosome inactivation occurs early during mammalian development to transcriptionally silence one of the pair of X chromosomes in females, thereby achieving dosage equivalence with males who have a single X chromosome and the sex-determining Y chromosome. Research in the lab is directed towards understanding both the mechanisms involved in the inactivation process and the clinical implications of X chromosome inactivation in females.

Publications

The eXceptional nature of the X chromosome
Human Molecular Genetics
Bradley P Balaton, Thomas Dixon-McDougall, Samantha B Peeters, Carolyn J Brown
DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddy148
08/2018

Human cis-acting elements regulating escape from X-chromosome inactivation function in mouse
Human Molecular Genetics
Samantha B Peeters, Andrea J Korecki, Elizabeth M Simpson, Carolyn J Brown
DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddy039
02/2018

Impact of flanking chromosomal sequences on localization and silencing by the human non-coding RNA XIST
Genome Biology
DOI: 10.1186/s13059-015-0774-2
12/2015

Landscape of DNA methylation on the X chromosome reflects CpG density, functional chromatin state and X-chromosome inactivation
Human Molecular Genetics
Cotton, Allison M. and Price, E. Magda and Jones, Meaghan J. and Balaton, Bradley P. and Kobor, Michael S. and Brown, Carolyn J.
DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddu564
2015

Unique somatic and malignant expression patterns implicate PIWI-interacting RNAs in cancer-type specific biology
Scientific Reports
Martinez, Victor D. and Vucic, Emily A. and Thu, Kelsie L. and Hubaux, Roland and Enfield, Katey S. S. and Pikor, Larissa A. and Becker-Santos, Daiana D. and Brown, Carolyn J. and Lam, Stephen and Lam, Wan L.
DOI: 10.1038/srep10423
2015

Variable escape from X-chromosome inactivation: Identifying factors that tip the scales towards expressionProspects & Overviews
BioEssays
Samantha B. Peeters, Allison M. Cotton, Carolyn J. Brown
DOI: 10.1002/bies.201400032
06/2014

Analysis of expressed SNPs identifies variable extents of expression from the human inactive X chromosome
Genome Biol
Cotton, A. M. and Ge, B. and Light, N. and Adoue, V. and Pastinen, T. and Brown, C. J.
DOI: 10.1186/gb-2013-14-11-r122
2013

DNA Methylation is Globally Disrupted and Associated with Expression Changes in COPD Small Airways
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol
Vucic, E. A. and Chari, R. and Thu, K. L. and Wilson, I. M. and Cotton, A. M. and Kennett, J. Y. and Zhang, M. and Lonergan, K. M. and Steiling, K. and Brown, C. J. and McWilliams, A. and Ohtani, K. and Lenburg, M. E. and Sin, D. D. and Spira, A. and Macaulay, C. E. and Lam, S. and Lam, W. L.
DOI: 10.1165/rcmb.2013-0304OC
2013

EYA4 is inactivated biallelically at a high frequency in sporadic lung cancer and is associated with familial lung cancer risk
Oncogene
Wilson, I. M. and Vucic, E. A. and Enfield, K. S. and Thu, K. L. and Zhang, Y. A. and Chari, R. and Lockwood, W. W. and Radulovich, N. and Starczynowski, D. T. and Banáth, J. P. and Zhang, M. and Pusic, A. and Fuller, M. and Lonergan, K. M. and Rowbotham, D. and Yee, J. and English, J. C. and Buys, T. P. and Selamat, S. A. and Laird-Offringa, I. A. and Liu, P. and Anderson, M. and You, M. and Tsao, M. S. and Brown, C. J. and Bennewith, K. L. and Macaulay, C. E. and Karsan, A. and Gazdar, A. F. and Lam, S. and Lam, W. L.
DOI: 10.1038/onc.2013.396
2013

Spread of X-chromosome inactivation into autosomal sequences: role for DNA elements, chromatin features and chromosomal domains
Hum Mol Genet
Cotton, A. M. and Chen, C. Y. and Lam, L. L. and Wasserman, W. W. and Kobor, M. S. and Brown, C. J.
DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddt513
2013

Additional annotation enhances potential for biologically-relevant analysis of the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array
Epigenetics and Chromatin
Price, M.E. and Cotton, A.M. and Lam, L.L. and Farré, P. and Emberly, E. and Brown, C.J. and Robinson, W.P. and Kobor, M.S.
DOI: 10.1186/1756-8935-6-4
2013

XIST-induced silencing of flanking genes is achieved by additive action of repeat a monomers in human somatic cellsEpigenetics & Chromatin
Minks, Jakub and Baldry, Sarah EL and Yang, Christine and Cotton, Allison M and Brown, Carolyn J
DOI: 10.1186/1756-8935-6-23
2013

Translating dosage compensation to trisomy 21Nature
Jiang, Jun and Jing, Yuanchun and Cost, Gregory J. and Chiang, Jen-Chieh and Kolpa, Heather J. and Cotton, Allison M. and Carone, Dawn M. and Carone, Benjamin R. and Shivak, David A. and Guschin, Dmitry Y. and et al.
DOI: 10.1038/nature12394
2013

Targeting of >1.5 Mb of human DNA into the mouse X chromosome reveals presence of cis-acting regulators of epigenetic silencing
Genetics
Yang, C. and McLeod, A.J. and Cotton, A.M. and de Leeuw, C.N. and Laprise, S. and Banks, K.G. and Simpson, E.M. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1534/genetics.112.143743
2012

Patterns of placental development evaluated by X chromosome inactivation profiling provide a basis to evaluate the origin of epigenetic variation
Human Reproduction
Peaherrera, M.S. and Jiang, R. and Avila, L. and Yuen, R.K.C. and Brown, C.J. and Robinson, W.P.
DOI: 10.1093/humrep/des072
2012

S100B and neurofibromin immunostaining and X-inactivation patterns of laser-microdissected cells indicate a multicellular origin of some NF1-associated neurofibromas
Journal of Neuroscience Research
Tucker, T. and Riccardi, V.M. and Brown, C. and Fee, J. and Sutcliffe, M. and Vielkind, J. and Wechsler, J. and Wolkenstein, P. and Friedman, J.M.
DOI: 10.1002/jnr.22654
2011

X-chromosome inactivation: Molecular mechanisms from the human perspective
Human Genetics
Yang, C. and Chapman, A.G. and Kelsey, A.D. and Minks, J. and Cotton, A.M. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1007/s00439-011-0994-9
2011

The functional role of long non-coding RNA in human carcinomas
Molecular Cancer
Gibb, E.A. and Brown, C.J. and Lam, W.L.
DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-10-38
2011

Human cancer long non-coding RNA transcriptomes
PLoS ONE
Gibb, E.A. and Vucic, E.A. and Enfield, K.S.S. and Stewart, G.L. and Lonergan, K.M. and Kennett, J.Y. and Becker-Santos, D.D. and MacAulay, C.E. and Lam, S. and Brown, C.J. and Lam, W.L.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025915
2011

Epigenetic impacts on neurodevelopment: Pathophysiological mechanisms and genetic modes of action
Pediatric Research
Zahir, F.R. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e318213565e
2011

Chromosome-wide DNA methylation analysis predicts human tissue-specific X inactivation
Human Genetics
Cotton, A.M. and Lam, L. and Affleck, J.G. and Wilson, I.M. and Peñaherrera, M.S. and McFadden, D.E. and Kobor, M.S. and Lam, W.L. and Robinson, W.P. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1007/s00439-011-1007-8
2011

Epigenetic Impacts on Neurodevelopment: Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Genetic Modes of Action
ZAHIR, FARAH R. and BROWN, CAROLYN J.
DOI: 10.1203/pdr.0b013e318213565e
2011

Identification of regulatory elements flanking human XIST reveals species differences
BMC Molecular Biology
Chang, S.C. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2199-11-20
2010

Active chromatin marks are retained on X chromosomes lacking gene or repeat silencing despite XIST/Xist expression in somatic cell hybrids
PLoS ONE
Thorogood, N.P. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010787
2010

Acquired TNFRSF14 mutations in follicular lymphoma are associated with worse prognosis
Cancer Research
Cheung, K.-J.J. and Johnson, N.A. and Affleck, J.G. and Severson, T. and Steidl, C. and Ben-Neriah, S. and Schein, J. and Morin, R.D. and Moore, R. and Shah, S.P. and Qian, H. and Paul, J.E. and Telenius, A. and Relander, T. and Lam, W. and Savage, K. and Connors, J.M. and Brown, C. and Marra, M.A. and Gascoyne, R.D. and Horsman, D.E.
DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-2460
2010

Erratum: X chromosome inactivation: Heterogeneity of heterochromatin (Biochem. Cell. Biol (2008) 86 (370-379))
Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Sidhu, S.K. and Minks, J. and Chang, S.C. and Cotton, A.M. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1139/O08-146
2009

Inactive X chromosome-specific reduction in placental DNA methylation
Human Molecular Genetics
Cotton, A.M. and Avila, L. and Penaherrera, M.S. and Affleck, J.G. and Robinson, W.P. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddp299
2009

Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation.
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE
Thu, K.L. and Vucic, E.A. and Kennett, J.Y. and Heryet, C. and Brown, C.J. and Lam, W.L. and Wilson, I.M.
2009

Getting to the center of X-chromosome inactivation: The role of transgenes
Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Minks, J. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1139/O09-040
2009

Methylated DNA ImmunoprecipitationJournal of Visualized Experiments
Thu, Kelsie L. and Vucic, Emily A. and Kennett, Jennifer Y. and Heryet, Cameron and Brown, Carolyn J. and Lam, Wan L. and Wilson, Ian M.
DOI: 10.3791/935
2009

Prognostic significance of secondary cytogenetic alterations in follicular lymphomas
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer
Johnson, N.A. and Al-Tourah, A. and Brown, C.J. and Connors, J.M. and Gascoyne, R.D. and Horsman, D.E.
DOI: 10.1002/gcc.20606
2008

Epigenetics of cancer progression
Pharmacogenomics
Vucic, E.A. and Brown, C.J. and Lam, W.L.
DOI: 10.2217/14622416.9.2.215
2008

Correction: BCoR-L1 variation and breast cancer
Breast Cancer Research
Lose, F. and Arnold, J. and Young, D.B. and Brown, C.J. and Mann, G.J. and Pupo, G.M. and Khanna, K.K. and Chenevix-Trench, G. and Spurdle, A.B.
DOI: 10.1186/bcr2153
2008

A skewed view of X chromosome inactivation
Journal of Clinical Investigation
Minks, J. and Robinson, W.P. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1172/JCI34470
2008

X chromosome inactivation: Heterogeneity of heterochromatin
Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Sidhu, S.K. and Minks, J. and Chang, S.C. and Cotton, A.M. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1139/O08-100
2008

A skewed view of X chromosome inactivationJournal of Clinical Investigation
Minks, Jakub and Robinson, Wendy P. and Brown, Carolyn J.
DOI: 10.1172/jci34470
2008

Patchwork womenNature Genetics
Brown, Carolyn
DOI: 10.1038/ng0907-1043
2007

Comparative Cancer EpigenomicsBasic and Applied Research
Davies, Jonathan and Lam, Wan and Lee, Eric and Vucic, Emily and Brown, Carolyn and MacAulay, Calum and Kuo, Alice and Wilson, Ian
DOI: 10.1201/9781420008876.ch14
2007

A cross-species comparison of X-chromosome inactivation in EutheriaGenomics
Yen, Ziny C. and Meyer, Irmtraud M. and Karalic, Sanja and Brown, Carolyn J.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2007.07.002
2007

BCoR-L1 variation and breast cancerBreast Cancer Research
Lose, Felicity and Arnold, Jeremy and Young, David B and Brown, Carolyn J and Mann, Graham J and Pupo, Gulietta M and Khanna, Kum and Chenevix-Trench, Georgia and Spurdle, Amanda B
DOI: 10.1186/bcr1759
2007

A comprehensive analysis of common copy-number variations in the human genome
American Journal of Human Genetics
Wong, K.K. and DeLeeuw, R.J. and Dosanjh, N.S. and Kimm, L.R. and Cheng, Z. and Horsman, D.E. and MacAulay, C. and Ng, R.T. and Brown, C.J. and Eichler, E.E. and Lam, W.L.
DOI: 10.1086/510560
2007

Inducible XIST-dependent X-chromosome inactivation in human somatic cells is reversible
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chow, J.C. and Hall, L.L. and Baldry, S.E.L. and Thorogood, N.P. and Lawrence, J.B. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0610946104
2007

Reply to Dr. Robert A. Hegele [2]
American Journal of Human Genetics
Wong, K.K. and DeLeeuw, R.J. and Brown, C.J. and Lam, W.L.
DOI: 10.1086/521416
2007

Skewed X-chromosome inactivation is associated with primary but not secondary ovarian failure
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A
Bretherick, K.L. and Metzger, D.L. and Chanoine, J.-P. and Panagiotopoulos, C. and Watson, S.K. and Lam, W.L. and Fluker, M.R. and Brown, C.J. and Robinson, W.P.
DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.31679
2007

Epigenomics: Mapping the methylome
Cell Cycle
Wilson, I.M. and Davies, J.J. and Weber, M. and Brown, C.J. and Alvarez, C.E. and MacAulay, C. and Schübeler, D. and Lam, W.L.
2006

Mechanisms of X-chromosome inactivation
Frontiers in Bioscience
Chang, S.C. and Tucker, T. and Thorogood, N.P. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.2741/1842
2006

Human X chromosome inactivation
Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics
Samuel C. Chang, Carolyn J. Brown
DOI: 10.1002/047001153x.g102201
01/2005

Epigenetic predisposition to expression of TIMP1 from the human inactive X chromosome
BMC Genetics
Anderson, C.L. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-6-48
2005

Silencing of the mammalian X chromosome
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
Chow, J.C. and Yen, Z. and Ziesche, S.M. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1146/annurev.genom.6.080604.162350
2005

Investigations of the genomic region that contains the clf1 mutation, a causal gene in multifactorial cleft lip and palate in mice
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Juriloff, D.M. and Harris, M.J. and Dewell, S.L. and Brown, C.J. and Mager, D.L. and Gagnier, L. and Mah, D.G.
DOI: 10.1002/bdra.20106
2005

The dynamics of X-inactivation skewing as women age
Clinical Genetics
Hatakeyama, C. and Anderson, C.L. and Beever, C.L. and Peñaherrera, M.S. and Brown, C.J. and Robinson, W.P.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2004.00310.x
2004

A Unique Patient with an Ullrich-Turner Syndrome Variant and Mosaicism for a Tiny r(X) and a Partial Proximal Duplication 1q
American Journal of Medical Genetics
Dawson, A.J. and Wickstrom, D.E. and Riordan, D. and Cardwell, S. and Casey, R. and Baldry, S. and Brown, C.
2004

A stain upon the silence: genes escaping X inactivationTrends in Genetics
Brown, Carolyn J. and Greally, John M.
DOI: 10.1016/s0168-9525(03)00177-x
2003

Forming facultative heterochromatin: Silencing of an X chromosome in mammalian females
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences
Chow, J.C. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1007/s00018-003-3121-9
2003

X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) patterns in placental tissues of a paternally derived bal t(X;20) case
American Journal of Medical Genetics
Peñaherrera, M.S. and Ma, S. and Ho Yuen, B. and Brown, C.J. and Robinson, W.P.
2003

Skewed X-chromosome inactivation is associated with trisomy in women ascertained on the basis of recurrent spontaneous abortion or chromosomally abnormal pregnancies
American Journal of Human Genetics
Beever, C.L. and Stephenson, M.D. and Peñaherrera, M.S. and Jiang, R.H. and Kalousek, D.K. and Hayden, M. and Field, L. and Brown, C.J. and Robinson, W.P.
DOI: 10.1086/346119
2003

Methylation of ZNF261 as an assay for determining X chromosome inactivation patterns [2]
American Journal of Medical Genetics
Beever, C. and Lai, B.P.Y. and Baldry, S.E.L. and Peñaherrera, M.S. and Jiang, R. and Robinson, W.P. and Brown, C.J.
2003

Characterization of expression at the human XIST locus in somatic, embryonal carcinoma, and transgenic cell lines
Genomics
Chow, J.C. and Hall, L.L. and Clemson, C.M. and Lawrence, J.B. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1016/S0888-7543(03)00170-8
2003

Beyond sense: The role of antisense RNA in controlling Xist expression
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology
Brown, C.J. and Chow, J.C.
DOI: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2003.09.013
2003

A stain upon the silence: Genes escaping X inactivation
Trends in Genetics
Brown, C.J. and Greally, J.M.
DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9525(03)00177-X
2003

Lack of expression of XIST from a small ring X chromosome containing the XIST locus in a girl with short stature, facial dysmorphism and developmental delay
European Journal of Human Genetics
Tomkins, D.J. and McDonald, H.L. and Farrell, S.A. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1038/sj/ejhg/5200757
2002

Relationship of XIST expression and responses of ovarian cancer to chemotherapy.
Molecular cancer therapeutics
Huang, K.C. and Rao, P.H. and Lau, C.C. and Heard, E. and Ng, S.K. and Brown, C. and Mok, S.C. and Berkowitz, R.S. and Ng, S.W.
2002

Variability of X chromosome inactivation: effect on levels of TIMP1 RNA and role of DNA methylationHuman Genetics
Anderson, Catherine and Brown, Carolyn
DOI: 10.1007/s00439-002-0676-8
2002

Ectopic XIST transcripts in human somatic cells show variable expression and localization
Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Chow, J.C. and Hall, L.L. and Lawrence, J.B. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1159/000071579
2002

Equality of the sexes: Mammalian dosage compensation
Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1055/s-2001-15392
2001

Biology of the X chromosome: Molecular and clinical correlates
Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Brown, C.J. and Simpson, J.L.
2001

X chromosome-specific cDNA arrays: Identification of genes that escape from X-inactivation and other applications
Human Molecular Genetics
Sudbrak, R. and Wieczorek, G. and Nuber, U.A. and Mann, W. and Kirchner, R. and Erdogan, F. and Brown, C.J. and Wöhrle, D. and Sterk, P. and Kalscheuer, V.M. and Berger, W. and Lehrach, H. and Ropers, H.-H.
2001

Unravelling the complex genetics of cleft lip in the mouse model
Mammalian Genome
Juriloff, D.M. and Harris, M.J. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1007/s003350010284
2001

Skewed X inactivation and recurrent spontaneous abortion
Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Robinson, W.P. and Beever, C. and Brown, C.J. and Stephenson, M.D.
DOI: 10.1055/s-2001-15397
2001

Determination of X-Chromosome Inactivation Status Using X-Linked Expressed Polymorphisms Identified by Database SearchingGenomics
Kutsche, Reta and Brown, Carolyn J.
DOI: 10.1006/geno.2000.6153
2000

The causes and consequences of random and non-random X chromosome inactivation in humans
Clinical Genetics
Brown, C.J. and Robinson, W.P.
DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-0004.2000.580504.x
2000

An association between skewed X-chromosome inactivation and abnormal outcome in mosaic trisomy 16 confined predominantly to the placenta
Clinical Genetics
Peñaherrera, Ms. and Barrett, I.J. and Brown, C.J. and Langlois, S. and Yong, S.-L. and Lewis, S. and Bruyère, H. and Howard-Peebles, P.N. and Kalousek, D.K. and Robinson, W.P.
DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-0004.2000.580603.x
2000

Involvement of the X chromosome in non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer
McDonald, H.L. and Gascoyne, R.D. and Horsman, D. and Brown, C.J.
2000

Polymorphic X-chromosome inactivation of the human TIMP1 gene
American Journal of Human Genetics
Anderson, C.L. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1086/302556
1999

Skewed X-chromosome inactivation: Cause or consequence
Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Brown, C.J.
1999

Extremely skewed X-chromosome inactivation is increased in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion [2]
American Journal of Human Genetics
Sangha, K.K. and Stephenson, M.D. and Brown, C.J. and Robinson, W.P.
DOI: 10.1086/302552
1999

Stabilization and localization of Xist RNA are controlled by separate mechanisms and are not sufficient for X inactivation
Journal of Cell Biology
Clemson, C.M. and Chow, J.C. and Brown, C.J. and Lawrence, J.B.
DOI: 10.1083/jcb.142.1.13
1998

Induction of XIST expression from the human active X chromosome in mouse/human somatic cell hybrids by DNA demethylation
Nucleic Acids Research
Tinker, A.V. and Brown, C.J.
DOI: 10.1093/nar/26.12.2935
1998

Skewed X-chromosome inactivation is common in fetuses or newborns associated with confined placental mosaicism
American Journal of Human Genetics
Lau, A.W. and Brown, C.J. and Peñaherrera, M. and Langlois, S. and Kalousek, D.K. and Robinson, W.P.
DOI: 10.1086/301651
1997

Expression of genes from the human active and inactive X chromosomes
American Journal of Human Genetics
Brown, C.J. and Carrel, L. and Willard, H.F.
1997

XIST expression and X-chromosome inactivation in human preimplantation embryos
American Journal of Human Genetics
Brown, C.J. and Robinson, W.P.
1997

Evidence that heteronuclear proteins interact with the XIST RNA in vitro
Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics
Brown, C.J. and Baldry, S.E.L.
DOI: 10.1007/BF02369896
1996

Role of the X chromosome in cancer.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Brown, C.J.
1996

Identification of a PIG-A related processed gene on chromosome 12
Human Genetics
Nagarajan, S. and Brown, C.J. and Medof, M.E.
DOI: 10.1007/BF00209489
1995

The DXS423E gene in Xp11.21 escapes X chromosome inactivation
Human Molecular Genetics
Brown, C.J. and Miller, A.P. and Carrel, L. and Rupert, J.L. and Davies, K.E. and Willard, H.F.
1995

Direct detection of non-random X chromosome inactivation by use of a transcribed polymorphism in the XIST gene
European Journal of Human Genetics
Rupert, J.L. and Brown, C.J. and Willard, H.F.
1995

The human X-inactivation centre is not required for maintenance of X- chromosome inactivation
Nature
Brown, C.J. and Willard, H.F.
DOI: 10.1038/368154a0
1994

Small marker X chromosomes lack the X inactivation center: Implications for karyotype/phenotype correlations
American Journal of Human Genetics
Wolff, D.J. and Brown, C.J. and Schwartz, S. and Duncan, A.M.V. and Surti, U. and Willard, H.F.
1994

Molecular and Genetic Studies of Human X Chromosome InactivationAdvances in Developmental Biology (1992)
Brown, Carolyn J. and Willard, Huntington F.
DOI: 10.1016/s1566-3116(08)60026-2
1993

The interleukin-2 receptor ¿ chain maps to Xq13.1 and is mutated in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, SCIDX1
Human Molecular Genetics
Puck, J.M. and Deschenes, S.M. and Porter, J.C. and Dutra, A.S. and Brown, C.J. and Willard, H.F. and Henthorn, P.S.
1993

Molecular and genetic studies of human X chromosome in activation
Advances in Developmental Biology (1992)
Brown, C.J. and Willard, H.F.
1993

Mapping of the distal boundary of the X-inactivation center in a rearranged X chromosome from a female expressing XIST
Human Molecular Genetics
Leppig, K.A. and Brown, C.J. and Bressler, S.L. and Gustashaw, K. and Pagon, R.A. and Willard, H.F. and Disteche, C.M.
1993

Evolutionary conservation of possible functional domains of the human and murine XIST genes
Human Molecular Genetics
Hendrich, B.D. and Brown, C.J. and Willard, H.F.
1993

Epigenetic and chromosomal control of gene expression: Molecular and genetic analysis of X chromosome inactivation
Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
Willard, H.F. and Brown, C.J. and Carrel, L. and Hendrich, B. and Miller, A.P.
1993

Characterization of a small supernumerary ring X chromosome by fluorescence in situ hybridization
American Journal of Medical Genetics
Duncan, A.M.V. and Macdonald, A. and Brown, C.J. and Wolff, D. and Willard, H.F. and Sutton, B.
DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.1320470804
1993

2.6 Mb YAC contig of the human X inactivation center region in Xq13: Physical linkage of the RPS4X, PHKA1, XIST and DXS128E genes
Human Molecular Genetics
Lafrenière, R.G. and Brown, C.J. and Rider, S. and Chelly, J. and Taillon-Miller, P. and Chinault, A.C. and Monaco, A.P. and Willard, H.F.
1993

The human XIST gene: Analysis of a 17 kb inactive X-specific RNA that contains conserved repeats and is highly localized within the nucleus
Cell
Brown, C.J. and Hendrich, B.D. and Rupert, J.L. and Lafrenière, R.G. and Xing, Y. and Lawrence, J. and Willard, H.F.
1992

The 56/58 kDa androgen-binding protein in male genital skin fibroblasts with a deleted androgen receptor gene
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Trifiro, M. and Gottlieb, B. and Pinsky, L. and Kaufman, M. and Prior, L. and Belsham, D.D. and Wrogemann, K. and Brown, C.J. and Willard, H.F. and Trapman, J. and Brinkmann, A.O. and Chang, C. and Liao, S. and Sergovich, F. and Jung, J.
DOI: 10.1016/0303-7207(91)90243-L
1991

A gene deleted in Kallmann's syndrome shares homology with neural cell adhesion and axonal path-finding molecules
Nature
Franco, B. and Guioli, S. and Pragliola, A. and Incerti, B. and Bardoni, B. and Tonlorenzi, R. and Carrozzo, R. and Maestrini, E. and Pieretti, M. and Taillon-Miller, P. and Brown, C.J. and Willard, H.F. and Lawrence, C. and Persico, M.G. and Camerino, G. and Ballabio, A.
DOI: 10.1038/353529a0
1991

A gene from the region of the human X inactivation centre is expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome
Nature
Brown, C.J. and Ballabio, A. and Rupert, J.L. and Lafreniere, R.G. and Grompe, M. and Tonlorenzi, R. and Willard, H.F.
1991

Localization of the X inactivation centre on the human X chromosome in Xq13
Nature
Brown, C.J. and Lafreniere, R.G. and Powers, V.E. and Sebastio, G. and Ballabio, A. and Pettigrew, A.L. and Ledbetter, D.H. and Levy, E. and Craig, I.W. and Willard, H.F.
DOI: 10.1038/349082a0
1991

Physical mapping of 60DNA markers in the p21.1 ¿ q21.3 region of the human X chromosome
Genomics
Lafreniere, R.G. and Brown, C.J. and Powers, V.E. and Carrel, L. and Davies, K.E. and Barker, D. and Willard, H.F.
1991

X chromosome inactivation of the human TIMP gene
Nucleic Acids Research
Carolyn J. Brown, Ann M. FIenniken, Bryan R.G. Williams, Huntington F. Willard
DOI: 10.1093/nar/18.14.4191
1990

Localization of a gene that escapes inactivation to the X chromosome proximal short arm: Implications for X inactivation
American Journal of Human Genetics
Brown, C.J. and Willard, H.F.
1990

X chromosome inactivation of the human TIMP gene
Nucleic Acids Research
Brown, C.J. and Flenniken, A.M. and Williams, B.R.G. and Willard, H.F.
1990

Gene on short arm of human X chromosome complements murine tsA1S9 DNA synthesis mutation
Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics
Brown, C.J. and Powers, V.E. and Munroe, D.L. and Sheinin, R. and Willard, H.F.
1989

Androgen receptor locus on the human X chromosome: Regional localization to Xq11-12 and description of a DNA polymorphism
American Journal of Human Genetics
Brown, C.J. and Goss, S.J. and Lubahn, D.B. and Joseph, D.R. and Wilson, E.M. and French, F.S. and Willard, H.F.
1989

Noninactivation of a selectable human X-linked gene that complements a murine temperature-sensitive cell cycle defect
American Journal of Human Genetics
Brown, C.J. and Willard, H.F.
1989

Regional localization of CCG1 gene which complements hamster cell cycle mutation BN462 to Xq11-Xq13
Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics
Brown, C.J. and Sekiguchi, T. and Nishimoto, T. and Willard, H.F.
1989

Genetic mapping of four DNA markers (DXS16, DXS43, DXS85, and DXS143) from the p22 region of the human X chromosome
Human Genetics
Brown, C.J. and Mahtani, M.M. and Willard, H.F.
1988

MspI RFLP detected with chromosome-walk clone pXUT23-SE3.2L from DXS16 in Xp22.1-22.3
Nucleic Acids Research
Brown, C.J. and Willard, H.F.
DOI: 10.1093/nar/15.22.9614
1987

YY1 binding association with sex-biased transcription revealed through X-linked transcript levels and allelic binding analyses.
PubMed: 27857184

Patchwork women
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng0907-1043

Human X chromosome inactivation
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/047001153x.g102201


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2156-6-48