Dr Roxane Carr’s research focus is to study the safety and effectiveness of drugs used to treat a variety of illnesses in children. She is also interested in studying the impact of various treatment modalities (extracorporeal life support (heart-lung machine), dialysis, and therapeutic plasma exchange (plasmapharesis) on drug dosing in children as well as optimal methods to monitor the drug therapy of children and for pharmacists to communicate about drug therapy issues with children and their care givers.


Development and validation of the Pediatric Asthma kNowleDge and mAnagement (P.A.N.D.A) questionnaires
Journal of Asthma
Levivien, C. and Kendrick, J. and Carr, R.
DOI: 10.1080/02770903.2021.1978482

Comparison of Sodium Bicarbonate and Lactated Ringers Hydration for High-dose Methotrexate Chemotherapy in Children
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology
Kendrick, J. and Jacques, L. and Baadjes, B. and Carr, R.
DOI: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000002393

Conflict between Pharmacy Preceptors and Pharmacy Learners in Experiential Education
The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Jennifer Kendrick and Arielle Beauchesne and Yunji Valerie Lee and Sue Corrigan and Roxane Carr
DOI: 10.4212/cjhp.v74i1.3044

Conflict between pharmacy preceptors and pharmacy learners in experiential education
Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Kendrick, J. and Beauchesne, A. and Lee, Y.V. and Corrigan, S. and Carr, R.
DOI: 10.4212/CJHP.V74I1.3044

Navigating the complex realm of drug access in paediatric care
Paediatrics and Child Health (Canada)
Dean, P.H. and Carr, R. and Jensen, C. and Strahlendorf, C.
DOI: 10.1093/pch/pxab001

Survey of therapeutic drug monitoring practices in pediatric health care programs across Canada
Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Leung, D. and Ensom, M.H.H. and Carr, R.

RELATE: Relationship of limited sampling strategy and adverse effects of mycophenolate mofetil in pediatric renal transplant patients
Pediatric Transplantation
Berger, I. and Haubrich, K. and Ensom, M.H.H. and Carr, R.
DOI: 10.1111/petr.13355

Pharmacologic Management of Agitation and Aggression in a Pediatric Emergency Department – A Retrospective Cohort Study
The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics
DOI: 10.5863/1551-6776-23.6.455

Pediatric Obesity: Pharmacokinetics and Implications for Drug Dosing
Clinical Therapeutics
Jennifer G. Kendrick and Roxane R. Carr and Mary H.H. Ensom
DOI: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2015.05.495

A naloxone admixture to prevent opioid-induced pruritus in children: a randomized controlled trial
Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie
Nicholas West and J. Mark Ansermino and Roxane R. Carr and Karen Leung and Guohai Zhou and Gillian R. Lauder
DOI: 10.1007/s12630-015-0380-5

Pediatric Assessment of Vancomycin Empiric Dosing (PAVED): a Retrospective Review
Pediatric Drugs
Daniel Rainkie and Mary H. H. Ensom and Roxane Carr
DOI: 10.1007/s40272-015-0122-8

The Invisible White Coat: Awareness of Pharmacists in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Rehana Bajwa and Jennifer G Kendrick and Roxane Carr
DOI: 10.4212/cjhp.v67i4.1374

Stability of Epinephrine at Standard Concentrations
The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Roxane R Carr and Diane Decarie and Mary H H Ensom
DOI: 10.4212/cjhp.v67i3.1356

Standard-Dose Versus High-Dose Acyclovir in Children Treated Empirically for Encephalitis: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Its Use and Safety
Pediatric Drugs
Jennifer G. Kendrick and Mary H. H. Ensom and Andrew Steer and Colin T. White and Eddie Kwan and Roxane R. Carr
DOI: 10.1007/s40272-014-0066-4

Evaluating preferences for long term wheeze following RSV infection using TTO and best-worst scaling
Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology
Lilla MC Roy and Nick Bansback and Carlo Marra and Roxane Carr and Mark Chilvers and Larry D Lynd
DOI: 10.1186/1710-1492-10-s1-a64

A Pharmacokinetics Module Taught Within a Pediatrics Pharmacotherapy Course
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Patricia Gerber and Roxane Carr
DOI: 10.5688/ajpe776126

Compatibility and Stability of Morphine Sulphate and Naloxone Hydrochloride in 0.9% Sodium Chloride for Injection
The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Charlotte Kistner and Mary H H Ensom and Diane Decarie and Gillian Lauder and Roxane R Carr
DOI: 10.4212/cjhp.v66i3.1253

Safety and Effectiveness of Dexmedetomidine in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (SAD–PICU)
The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Laura Carney and Jennifer Kendrick and Roxane Carr
DOI: 10.4212/cjhp.v66i1.1208

Overview of antiarrhythmic drug therapy for supraventricular tachycardia in children
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology
Carolina Escudero and Roxane Carr and Shubhayan Sanatani
DOI: 10.1016/j.ppedcard.2012.11.008

Canadian Survey of Critical Care Pharmacists' Views and Involvement in Clinical Research
Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Marc M Perreault and Zoé Thiboutot and Lisa D Burry and Louise Rose and Salmaan Kanji and Jaclyn M LeBlanc and Roxane R Carr and David R Williamson
DOI: 10.1345/aph.1r180

The Medical Management of Pediatric Arrhythmias
Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Carolina Escudero and Roxane Carr and Shubhayan Sanatani
DOI: 10.1007/s11936-012-0194-5

Use of Methadone for Prevention of Opioid Withdrawal in Critically Ill Children
The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Sonia A Jeffries and Rumi McGloin and Alexander F Pitfield and Roxane R Carr
DOI: 10.4212/cjhp.v65i1.1098

A systematic review of the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs in neonates with refractory seizures
Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics
DOI: 10.5863/1551-6776-17.1.31

Canadian survey of critical care pharmacists' views and involvement in clinical research,Estudio canadiense sobre la implicación de los farmacéuticos de cuidados críticos en investigación clínica y sus opiniones en torno a ESTE tema
Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Perreault, M.M. and Thiboutot, Z. and Burry, L.D. and Rose, L. and Kanji, S. and Leblanc, J.M. and Carr, R.R. and Williamson, D.R.
DOI: 10.1345/aph.1R180

Identification by families of pediatric adverse events and near misses overlooked by health care providers
Canadian Medical Association Journal
J. P. Daniels and K. Hunc and D. D. Cochrane and R. Carr and N. T. Shaw and A. Taylor and S. Heathcote and R. Brant and J. Lim and J. M. Ansermino
DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.110393

Describing Intravenous Extravasation in Children (DIVE Study)
The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Vanessa Paquette and Rumi McGloin and Tracie Northway and Pia DeZorzi and Avash Singh and Roxane Carr
DOI: 10.4212/cjhp.v64i5.1069

Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Ribavirin for the Treatment of La Crosse Encephalitis
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
James E. McJunkin and Milap C. Nahata and Emily C. De Los Reyes and W. Garrett Hunt and Manuel Caceres and Raheel R. Khan and Mouna G. Chebib and Sasidharan Taravath and Linda L. Minnich and Roxane Carr and Christine A. Welch and Richard J. Whitley
DOI: 10.1097/inf.0b013e31821c922c

The need for better data about counterfeit drugs in developing countries: A proposed standard research methodology tested in Chennai, India
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Seear, M. and Gandhi, D. and Carr, R. and Dayal, A. and Raghavan, D. and Sharma, N.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2010.01198.x

Safety and pharmacokinetics of ribavirin for the treatment of la crosse encephalitis
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
McJunkin, J.E. and Nahata, M.C. and De Los Reyes, E.C. and Hunt, W.G. and Caceres, M. and Khan, R.R. and Chebib, M.G. and Taravath, S. and Minnich, L.L. and Carr, R. and Welch, C.A. and Whitley, R.J.
DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31821c922c

Comparison of Continuous and Intermittent IV Infusion of Vancomycin: Systematic Review
The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Mary H H Ensom and Sally S K Man and Roxane R Carr
DOI: 10.4212/cjhp.v63i5.949

A human factors and survey methodology-based design of a web-based adverse event reporting system for families
International Journal of Medical Informatics
Jeremy P. Daniels and Ashlee D. King and D. Douglas Cochrane and Roxane Carr and Nicola T. Shaw and Joanne Lim and J. Mark Ansermino
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2010.01.016

Pharmacokinetics and drug dosing in obese children
Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency in Children With Osteopenia or Osteoporosis Referred to a Pediatric Metabolic Bone Clinic
S. A. Bowden and R. F. Robinson and R. Carr and J. D. Mahan
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-2111

Long-term effectiveness outcome of melatonin therapy in children with treatment-resistant circadian rhythm sleep disorders
Journal of Pineal Research
Roxanne Carr and Michael B. Wasdell and Donald Hamilton and Margaret D. Weiss and Roger D. Freeman and Joseph Tai and Wop J. Rietveld and James E. Jan
DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-079x.2007.00485.x

Complementary and alternative medicine for upper-respiratory-tract infection in children
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy
Carr, R.R. and Nahata, M.C.
DOI: 10.2146/ajhp040613

Azithromycin for Improving Pulmonary Function in Cystic Fibrosis
Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Roxane R Carr and Milap C Nahata
DOI: 10.1345/aph.1d589

Azithromycin for improving pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis
Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Carr, R.R. and Nahata, M.C.
DOI: 10.1345/aph.1D589

Drug Disposition and Therapy in Adolescence: The Effects of Puberty
The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Roxane R. Carr and Mary H.H. Ensom
DOI: 10.5863/1551-6776-8.2.86

Octreotide for Sulfonylurea-Induced Hypoglycemia Following Overdose
The Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Roxane Carr and Peter J Zed
DOI: 10.1345/1542-6270(2002)0362.0.co;2

Fluoxetine in the Treatment of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Roxane R Carr and Mary HH Ensom
DOI: 10.1345/aph.1a265

Octreotide for sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia following overdose
Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Carr, R. and Zed, P.J.
DOI: 10.1345/aph.1C076

Paralysis in the critically ill: Intermittent bolus pancuronium compared with continuous infusion
Critical Care Medicine
Jane M. de Lemos and Roxane R. Carr and Karen F. Shalansky and David R. Bevan and Juan J. Ronco
DOI: 10.1097/00003246-199912000-00007

Primary Induction with Mycophenolate Mofetil and Corticosteroids in a Liver Transplant Recipient with Hepatorenal Syndrome
Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Roxane R Carr and Eric M Yoshida and Stephen W Chung and Nilufar Partovi
DOI: 10.1345/aph.17059


Review of Pharmacokinetics of Medications in Children Undergoing Therapeutic Plasma Exchange
Therapeutic Plasma Exchange (TPE), also known as plasmapharesis or “plex”, is a process that separates plasma for the cellular components of blood, discarding the plasma and exchanging it with replacement physiologic fluids such as albumin or fresh frozen plasma. TPE is used in the management of many types of conditions, including (but not limited to) systemic lupus erythema, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), myasthenia gravis, severe septic shock, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), and Guillain Barre syndrome. By virtue of its nature, TPE extracts medications from plasma and potentially affects drug disposition and clearance. However, the degree and impact on the impact of TPE on pharmacokinetics is not well described and currently available literature is limited to case reports with highly variable parameters reported. This makes optimal dosing of key medications (especially antibiotics, sedative and anti-seizure medications) during and around TPE difficult to predict. Objectives: To describe the impact of TPE on serum drug concentrations of phenytoin, phenobarbital, vancomycin, gentamicin, and valproic acid. To describe optimal dosing around TPE to maintain target drug serum concentrations.

Correlation of limited sampling strategy for mycophenolate in pediatric solid organ transplant patients
Mycophenolate is commonly used as an immunosuppressant in children who have received solid organ transplants to prevent rejection of the graft. Currently therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended as dosage and serum concentration do not correlate well however it is unclear from the literature what the upper limit of the therapeutic range should be and if limited sampling strategies to estimate area under the curve correlates to effectiveness and adverse drug reactions. Objective: To describe the correlation between limited sampling strategy for mycophenolate and clinical effectiveness (adverse drug reactions and signs or organ graft rejection)

The Feasibility of Patient and Caregiver Self-Referral to Clinical Pharmacists in the Inpatient Pediatric Setting
Pharmacists play a significant role in patient care, part of which involves direct interaction with patients and caregivers. During hospitalization, many patients and caregivers may be unaware that a pharmacist is part of their team. In a previous study at our site, we found that only 10% of caregivers recalled speaking with a pharmacist; however 86% of caregivers indicated that they would like to speak with a pharmacist.1 Patients and caregivers may be unaware of how to contact their pharmacist during hospitalization, since they do not have the same direct access to their pharmacist as they would in other settings. Objective: To assess the feasibility of a patient/caregiver self-referral service to pharmacists

Honours & Awards

2012/2013 Pharmacotherapy Best Practices Award, Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists. Carney L, Kendrick J, Carr RR. Safety and Effectiveness of Dexmedetomidine in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (SAD–PICU)

2015/2016 Pharmacotherapy Best Practices Award, Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists. Collins K, Ensom MHH, Rainkie D, Carr RR. Pediatric assessment of vancomycin empiric dosing 2 (PAVED2).

Research Group Members

Lynne Taylor