In North America, there are few power mobility devices suitable for young children from one to five years of age. Aesthetics, portability, weight and safety considerations are believed to be important to families of young children. Our current research is exploring family and therapist perceptions of several novel early power mobility devices such as adapted ride-on toys and miniature power wheelchairs. Some families and children will be given the opportunity to borrow this equipment for a six-month loan to explore how this equipment can be integrated into family life and how children benefit. We hope to expand this research into a larger scale loan program in BC that will include ongoing data collection regarding benefits of early power mobility for children and families.


Beginning power mobility: An exploration of factors associated with child use of early power mobility devices and parent device preference
Journal of Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies Engineering
Roslyn W Livingstone and Jeffrey Bone and Debra A Field
DOI: 10.1177/2055668320926046

American and Canadian therapists' perspectives of age and cognitive skills for paediatric power mobility: a qualitative study.
Disability and rehabilitation. Assistive technology
Kenyon LK and Jones M and Breaux B and Tsotsoros J and Gardner T and Livingstone R
DOI: 10.1080/17483107.2019.1606858
PubMed: 31299867

Power mobility skill progression for children and adolescents: a systematic review of measures and their clinical application
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
Debra A Field and Roslyn W Livingstone
DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.13709

Power mobility for children: a survey study of American and Canadian therapists’ perspectives and practices
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
Lisa K Kenyon and Maria Jones and Roslyn Livingstone and Becky Breaux and Jessica Tsotsoros and Kelly M Williams
DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.13960

Interventions to improve sensory and motor outcomes for young children with central hypotonia: A systematic review.
Journal of pediatric rehabilitation medicine
Paleg G and Romness M and Livingstone R
DOI: 10.3233/prm-170507
PubMed: 29630564

Commentary on “Ride-On Car Training for Behavioral Changes in Mobility and Socialization Among Young Children With Disabilities”
Pediatric Physical Therapy
Ginny Paleg and Roslyn Livingstone
DOI: 10.1097/pep.0000000000000401

RESNA position on the application of power mobility devices for pediatric users
Assistive Technology
Lauren Rosen and Teresa Plummer and Andrina Sabet and Michelle L. Lange and Roslyn Livingstone
DOI: 10.1080/10400435.2017.1415575

Physical risk factors influencing wheeled mobility in children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional study
BMC Pediatrics
Elisabet Rodby-Bousquet and Ginny Paleg and Jackie Casey and Alicja Wizert and Roslyn Livingstone
DOI: 10.1186/s12887-016-0707-6

Evidence-informed clinical perspectives on selecting gait trainer features for children with cerebral palsy
International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation
Ginny Paleg and Roslyn Livingstone
DOI: 10.12968/ijtr.2016.23.9.444

Measuring Outcomes for Children with Cerebral Palsy Who Use Gait Trainers
Roslyn Livingstone and Ginny Paleg
DOI: 10.3390/technologies4030022

Comparison of the inertial properties and forces required to initiate movement for three gait trainers
Assistive Technology
Ginny Paleg and Morris Huang and Stephanie C. Vasquez Gabela and Stephen Sprigle and Roslyn Livingstone
DOI: 10.1080/10400435.2015.1123780

Systematic review and clinical recommendations for dosage of supported home-based standing programs for adults with stroke, spinal cord injury and other neurological conditions
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
Ginny Paleg and Roslyn Livingstone
DOI: 10.1186/s12891-015-0813-x

Facilitating interprofessional evidence-based practice in paediatric rehabilitation: development, implementation and evaluation of an online toolkit for health professionals
Disability and Rehabilitation
Stephanie M. N. Glegg and Roslyn Livingstone and Ivonne Montgomery
DOI: 10.3109/09638288.2015.1041616

Outcomes of gait trainer use in home and school settings for children with motor impairments: a systematic review
Clinical Rehabilitation
Ginny Paleg and Roslyn Livingstone
DOI: 10.1177/0269215514565947

The child and family experience of power mobility: a qualitative synthesis
Dev Med Child Neurol
Roslyn Livingstone and Debra Field
DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12633

Systematic review of power mobility outcomes for infants, children and adolescents with mobility limitations
Clinical Rehabilitation
Roslyn Livingstone and Debra Field
DOI: 10.1177/0269215514531262

International consensus on best practice for use and introduction of power mobility with children
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology

Practice considerations for the introduction and use of power mobility for children
Dev Med Child Neurol
Roslyn Livingstone and Ginny Paleg
DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12245

Clinical tools that measure sitting posture, seated postural control or functional abilities in children with motor impairments: a systematic review
Clinical Rehabilitation
Debra Field and Roslyn Livingstone
DOI: 10.1177/0269215513488122

Facilitating child participation through power mobility
The British Journal of Occupational Therapy
Jacqueline Casey and Ginny Paleg and Roslyn Livingstone
DOI: 10.4276/030802213x13627524435306

A critical review of powered mobility assessment and training for children
Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology
R. Livingstone
DOI: 10.3109/17483107.2010.496097

Beginning power mobility: A knowledge translation activity
OT Now


Current Projects
Phase 1: Beginning Power Mobility. This study involves a cross-sectional, observational design wherein the relationships of measures from the child’s profile, environmental setting, physical location, therapy context, family attitudes and goals for power mobility will be described and examined with respect to parental preference of PMD for a longer term trial. ‘Power Mobility Days’ will be offered at locations throughout the province to children below 6 years-of-age with their families and community therapists.

Phase 2: Beginning Power Mobility. This study involves a repeated measures design where 16 children (below 6 years-of-age with mobility limitations) will be offered a 6-month loan of an early PMD (Wizzybug, Bugzi, Tiger cub or modified ride-on toy car). Children will be purposely selected from our Phase 1 study to represent a variety of diagnoses, ages, environmental situations, and types of parent-identified activity and participation goals for use of an early PMD. Measures will be completed at the beginning and end of the loan period.

Honours & Awards

Provincial Health Services Authority Plus Award (2015)

Children’s & Women’s Health Centre Education Award (2010)

Provincial Paediatric Recruitment and Retention Council Mentorship Award (2012)