I am a developmental pediatrician studying how early social experience (prenatal maternal mental illness and psychotropic medication exposure) influences the developmental origins of stress and self-regulation and its impact on thinking, learning and behaviour during childhood.


Perinatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) effects on body weight at birth and beyond: A review of animal and human studies
Reproductive Toxicology
Sarah M. Hutchison, Louise C. Mâsse, Jodi L. Pawluski, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2018.02.004

Perinatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication (SSRI) effects on social behaviors, neurodevelopment and the epigenome
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
Mary Gemmel, Eszter Bögi, Christina Ragan, Mariah Hazlett, Michal Dubovicky, Daniel L. van den Hove, Tim F. Oberlander, Thierry D. Charlier, Jodi L. Pawluski
DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.04.023

Maternal depression trajectories from pregnancy to 3 years postpartum are associated with children’s behavior and executive functions at 3 and 6 years
Archives of Women's Mental Health
Mina Park, Ursula Brain, Ruth E. Grunau, Adele Diamond, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1007/s00737-017-0803-0

Depressed Women of Low Socioeconomic Status Have High Numbers of Physician Visits in the Year Before Pregnancy: Implications for Care
Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Jenny Fairthorne, Gillian E. Hanley, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.14740/jocmr3377w

Unpacking the Heterogeneity of Cognitive Functioning in Children and Adolescents with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Determining the Role of Moderators and Strengths
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Kaitlyn McLachlan, Angelina Paolozza, Katrina Kully-Martens, Elodie Portales-Casamar, Paul Pavlidis, Gail Andrew, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Christine Loock, Audrey McFarlane, Sarah M. Nikkel, Jacqueline Pei, Tim F. Oberlander, Dawa Samdup, James N. Reynolds, Carmen Rasmussen
DOI: 10.1007/s41252-017-0034-4

Response to “use of domperidone and risk of ventricular arrhythmia in the postpartum period: Getting to the heart of the matter”
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Kate Smolina, Steve Morgan, Barbara Mintzes, Gillian Hanley, Tim Oberlander
DOI: 10.1002/pds.4229

Variations in Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Children with Prenatal SSRI Antidepressant ExposureNeurodevelopmental Outcomes and Prenatal SSRI Exposure
Birth Defects Research
Naama Rotem-Kohavi, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1002/bdr2.1076

Afternoon cortisol provides a link between self-regulated anger and peer-reported aggression in typically developing children in the school context
Developmental Psychobiology
Eva Oberle, Kaitlyn McLachlan, Nicole L.A. Catherine, Ursula Brain, Kimberly A. Schonert-Reichl, Joanne Weinberg, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1002/dev.21522

Infants and adults have similar regional functional brain organization for the perception of emotions
Neuroscience Letters
N. Rotem-Kohavi, T.F. Oberlander, N. Virji-Babul
DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2017.04.031

Disentangling Maternal Depression and Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy as Risks for Autism in Children
Tim F. Oberlander, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum
DOI: 10.1001/jama.2017.3414

The Risk of Teenage Motherhood Decreases in A Dose Response Fashion With Increasing SES: A Population-Based Study From British Columbia, Canada
Jenny Fairthorne
DOI: 10.17303/jwhg.2017.4.104

Antenatal exposure to antidepressants is associated with altered brain development in very preterm-born neonates
Samantha K. Podrebarac, Emma G. Duerden, Vann Chau, Ruth E. Grunau, Anne Synnes, Tim F. Oberlander, Steven P. Miller
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.11.025

Developmental changes in serotonin signaling: Implications for early brain function, behavior and adaptation
S. Brummelte, E. Mc Glanaghy, A. Bonnin, T.F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.02.037

Post-Partum Depression and Infant Crying Behavior
Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development

Developmental origins of self-regulation: Prenatal maternal stress and psychobiological development during childhood
Parental stress and early child development: Adaptive and maladaptive outcomes

Children’s stress regulation mediates the association between depressed and/or anxious prenatal maternal mood and child executive functions for boys, but not girls
Development and Psychopathology

Variations from morning to afternoon of middle cerebral and umbilical artery blood flow, and fetal heart rate variability, and fetal characteristics in the normally developing fetus
Journal of Clinical Ultrasound
Tehila Avitan, Ari Sanders, Ursula Brain, Dan Rurak, Tim F Oberlander, Ken Lim
DOI: 10.1002/jcu.22569

Predictors of Recovery from Depression and Anxiety in Women: A Longitudinal Study from Childbirth to 6 Years
The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
Radhika Shankar, Rinette Badker, Ursula Brain, Tim F. Oberlander, Shaila Misri
DOI: 10.1177/0706743716677725

Genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase modifies effects of clonidine treatment in chronic fatigue syndrome
The Pharmacogenomics Journal
K T Hall, J Kossowsky, T F Oberlander, T J Kaptchuk, J P Saul, V B Wyller, E Fagermoen, D Sulheim, J Gjerstad, A Winger, K J Mukamal
DOI: 10.1038/tpj.2016.53

SLC6A4 promoter region methylation and socio-emotional stress response in very preterm and full-term infants
Rosario Montirosso and Livio Provenzi and Roberto Giorda and Monica Fumagalli and Francesco Morandi and Ida Sirgiovanni and Uberto Pozzoli and Ruth Grunau and Tim F Oberlander and Fabio Mosca and Renato Borgatti
DOI: 10.2217/epi-2016-0010

The association between domperidone and ventricular arrhythmia in the postpartum periodDomperidone and Arrhythmia Postpartum
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Kate Smolina, Barbara Mintzes, Gillian E. Hanley, Tim F. Oberlander, Steven G. Morgan
DOI: 10.1002/pds.4035

Dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm following prenatal alcohol exposure and early life adversity
Kaitlyn McLachlan, Carmen Rasmussen, Tim F. Oberlander, Christine Loock, Jacqueline Pei, Gail Andrew, James Reynolds, Joanne Weinberg
DOI: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2016.03.003

Sculpting infant soothability: the role of prenatal SSRI antidepressant exposure and neonatalSLC6A4methylation status
Developmental Psychobiology
Maria A. Gartstein, Kaia V. Hookenson, Ursula Brain, Angela M. Devlin, Ruth E. Grunau, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1002/dev.21414

Developmental Effects of Prenatal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Exposure in Perspective: Are We Comparing Apples to Apples?
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Tim F. Oberlander, Simone N. Vigod
DOI: 10.1016/j.jaac.2016.02.012

Postpartum Hemorrhage and Use of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressants in Pregnancy
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Gillian E. Hanley, Kate Smolina, Barbara Mintzes, Tim F. Oberlander, Steven G. Morgan
DOI: 10.1097/aog.0000000000001200

A patient decision aid for antidepressant use in pregnancy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Simone Vigod, Neesha Hussain-Shamsy, Sophie Grigoriadis, Louise M. Howard, Kelly Metcalfe, Tim F. Oberlander, Carrie Schram, Donna E. Stewart, Valerie H. Taylor, Cindy-Lee Dennis
DOI: 10.1186/s13063-016-1233-4

Postpartum domperidone use in British Columbia: a retrospective cohort study
K. Smolina, S. G. Morgan, G. E. Hanley, T. F. Oberlander, B. Mintzes
DOI: 10.9778/cmajo.20150067

Health Care for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities across the Lifespan
Chantel C. Barney and John L. Belew and Abraham J. Valkenburg and Frank J. Symons and Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-18096-0_143

Fetal Effects of In Utero Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SRI) Antidepressant Exposure
Fetal Development
Gillian Hanley, Kaia Hookenson, Dan Rurak, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-22023-9_18

A randomized controlled trial of eye shields and earmuffs to reduce pain response of preterm infants
Journal of Neonatal Nursing
Marilyn Aita, Céline Goulet, Tim F. Oberlander, Laurie Snider, Celeste Johnston
DOI: 10.1016/j.jnn.2014.11.004

Trends and Determinants of Prescription Drug Use during Pregnancy and Postpartum in British Columbia, 2002–2011: A Population-Based Cohort Study
Kate Smolina, Gillian E. Hanley, Barbara Mintzes, Tim F. Oberlander, Steve Morgan
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128312

Prenatal antidepressant exposure associated with CYP2E1 DNA methylation change in neonates
DOI: 10.1080/15592294.2015.1026031

Prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants and childhood behavior
Pediatric Research
Gillian E. Hanley, Ursula Brain, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1038/pr.2015.77

Enhancing cognitive and social–emotional development through a simple-to-administer mindfulness-based school program for elementary school children: A randomized controlled trial.
Developmental Psychology
Kimberly A. Schonert-Reichl, Eva Oberle, Molly Stewart Lawlor, David Abbott, Kimberly Thomson, Tim F. Oberlander, Adele Diamond
DOI: 10.1037/a0038454

Do We Know If They Work and If They Are Safe
The Science and Ethics of Antipsychotic Use in Children
Dean Elbe, Edel Mc Glanaghy, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-800016-8.00003-9

The Impact of Maternal Positive and Negative Affect on Fetal Physiology and Diurnal Patterns
The Israel journal of psychiatry and related sciences
Hanley, Gillian and Rurak, Dan and Lim, Ken and Brain, Ursula and Oberlander, Tim

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for treatment of major depression during pregnancy: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial
Simone Vigod, Cindy-Lee Dennis, Zafiris Daskalakis, Kellie Murphy, Joel Ray, Tim Oberlander, Sarah Somerton, Neesha Hussain-Shamsy, Daniel Blumberger
DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-15-366

The symphonic structure of childhood stress reactivity: Patterns of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and adrenocortical responses to psychological challenge
Development and Psychopathology
Jodi A. Quas, Ilona S. Yim, Tim F. Oberlander, David Nordstokke, Marilyn J. Essex, Jeffrey M. Armstrong, Nicole Bush, Jelena Obradovic, W. Thomas Boyce
DOI: 10.1017/s0954579414000480

Evaluation of the Neurobehavioral Screening Tool in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
PubMed: 24897061

Rising antipsychotic prescriptions for children and youth: cross-sectoral solutions for a multimodal problem
Canadian Medical Association Journal
N. Di Pietro, J. Illes, for the Canadian Working Group on Antipsychotic Medications and Children
DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.131604

The effect of perinatal exposures on the infant: Antidepressants and depression
Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gillian E. Hanley, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.09.001

Neonatal pain and COMT Val158Met genotype in relation to serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) promoter methylation in very preterm children at school age
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Cecil M. Y. Chau, Manon Ranger, Dian Sulistyoningrum, Angela M. Devlin, Tim F. Oberlander, Ruth E. Grunau
DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00409

Maternal and Fetal Factors That Influence Prenatal Exposure to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressants
Psychopharmacology and Pregnancy
Alison K. Shea and Tuan-Anh Thi Nguyen and Ursula Brain and Dan Rurak and Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-54562-7_4

Pain in Children with Autism
Mental Health and Pain
Tim F. Oberlander and Lonnie K. Zeltzer
DOI: 10.1007/978-2-8178-0414-9_12

Biomarkers of pain: physiological indices of pain reactivity in infants and children
Oxford Medicine Online
Susanne Brummelte, Tim F. Oberlander, Kenneth D. Craig
DOI: 10.1093/med/9780199642656.003.0038

Infant developmental outcomes following prenatal exposure to antidepressants, and maternal depressed mood and positive affect
Early Human Development
Gillian E. Hanley, Ursula Brain, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2012.12.012

Depression and Anxiety
Shaila Misri, Andrea B. Eng, Jasmin Abizadeh, Ekin Blackwell, Alicia Spidel, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1002/da.22137

Physician Variability in Treating Pain and Irritability of Unknown Origin in Children with Severe Neurological Impairment
Pain Research and Management
Harold B Siden, Bruce C Carleton, Tim F Oberlander
DOI: 10.1155/2013/193937

Pain in Children with Disabilities
Encyclopedia of Pain
Kenneth D. Craig, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-28753-4_3090

Prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant exposure and serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4) influence executive functions at 6 years of age
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Whitney M. Weikum, Ursula Brain, Cecil M. Y. Chau, Ruth E. Grunau, W. Thomas Boyce, Adele Diamond, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2013.00180

The impact of prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant exposure and maternal mood on mother–infant interactions at 3 months of age
Infant Behavior and Development
Whitney M. Weikum, Linda C. Mayes, Ruth E. Grunau, Ursula Brain, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2013.04.001

Reply to Klinger et al
Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Gillian E. Hanley, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1002/bdra.23095

Prenatal exposure to antidepressants and depressed maternal mood alter trajectory of infant speech perception
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
W. M. Weikum, T. F. Oberlander, T. K. Hensch, J. F. Werker
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1121263109

A Tale of 2s: Optimizing Maternal—Child Health in the Context of Antenatal Maternal Depression and Antidepressant Use
The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
Tim F Oberlander, Katherine L Wisner
DOI: 10.1177/070674371205700901

Fetal Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressant Exposure: Maternal and Fetal Factors
The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
Alison K Shea, Tim F Oberlander, Dan Rurak
DOI: 10.1177/070674371205700902

Fetal Serotonin Signaling: Setting Pathways for Early Childhood Development and Behavior
Journal of Adolescent Health
Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.04.009

Third trimester fetal pulmonary artery Doppler blood flow velocity characteristics following prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure
Early Human Development
Ken Lim, Ari Sanders, Ursula Brain, Wayne Riggs, Tim F. Oberlander, Dan Rurak
DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2012.01.004

Prenatal SSRI exposure alters neonatal corticosteroid binding globulin, infant cortisol levels, and emerging HPA function
Jodi L. Pawluski, Ursula M. Brain, Caroline M. Underhill, Geoffrey L. Hammond, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.11.011

Biopsychosocial determinants of treatment outcome for mood and anxiety disorders up to 8 months postpartum
Archives of Women's Mental Health
Shaila Misri, Gillian Albert, Jasmin Abizadeh, Kristin Kendrick, Diana Carter, Deirdre Ryan, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1007/s00737-012-0288-9

Neurodevelopmental outcomes following prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants: A “social teratogen” or moderator of developmental risk?
Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Gillian E. Hanley, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1002/bdra.23032

Antidepressant use during pregnancy and serotonin transporter genotype (SLC6A4) Affect newborn serum reelin levels
Developmental Psychobiology
S. Brummelte, L.A.M. Galea, A.M. Devlin, T.F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1002/dev.21056

Afternoon Cortisol in Elementary School Classrooms: Associations with Peer and Teacher Support and Child Behavior
School Mental Health
Nicole L. A. Catherine, Kimberly A. Schonert-Reichl, Clyde Hertzman, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1007/s12310-012-9076-y

The Management of Depression During Pregnancy: A Report from the American Psychiatric Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Kimberly A. Yonkers, Katherine L. Wisner, Donna E. Stewart, Tim F. Oberlander, Diana L. Dell, Nada Stotland, Susan Ramin, Linda Chaudron, Charles Lockwood
DOI: 10.1176/appi.focus.10.1.78

Pediatric Analgesic Clinical Trial Designs, Measures, and Extrapolation: Report of an FDA Scientific Workshop
C. B. Berde, G. A. Walco, E. J. Krane, K. J. S. Anand, J. V. Aranda, K. D. Craig, C. D. Dampier, J. C. Finkel, M. Grabois, C. Johnston, J. Lantos, A. Lebel, L. G. Maxwell, P. McGrath, T. F. Oberlander, L. E. Schanberg, B. Stevens, A. Taddio, C. L. von Baeyer, M. Yaster, W. T. Zempsky
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2010-3591

Intervention Minimizing Preterm Infants’ Exposure to NICU Light and Noise
Clinical Nursing Research
Marilyn Aita, Celeste Johnston, Céline Goulet, Tim F. Oberlander, Laurie Snider
DOI: 10.1177/1054773812469223

Frontal EEG/ERP correlates of attentional processes, cortisol and motivational states in adolescents from lower and higher socioeconomic status
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Amedeo D'Angiulli, Joanne Weinberg, Tim F. Oberlander, Ruth E. Grunau, Clyde Hertzman, Stefania Maggi
DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00306

Does breastfeeding reduce acute procedural pain in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit? A randomized clinical trial
Liisa Holsti, Timothy F. Oberlander, Rollin Brant
DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2011.07.022

Antidepressant use in children and adolescents: Practice touch points to guide paediatricians
Paediatrics & Child Health
Tim F Oberlander, Anton R Miller
DOI: 10.1093/pch/16.9.549

Focused attention, heart rate deceleration, and cognitive development in preterm and full-term infants
Developmental Psychobiology
Julianne H. Petrie Thomas, Michael F. Whitfield, Tim F. Oberlander, Anne R. Synnes, Ruth E. Grunau
DOI: 10.1002/dev.20597

Third Trimester Fetal Heart Rate and Doppler Middle Cerebral Artery Blood Flow Velocity Characteristics During Prenatal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Exposure
Pediatric Research
Dan Rurak, Ken Lim, Ari Sanders, Ursula Brain, Wayne Riggs, Tim F Oberlander
DOI: 10.1203/pdr.0b013e31821ba11a

Pain in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities
Clinical Pain Management
Tim F. Oberlander, Chantel C. Burkitt, Frank J. Symons
DOI: 10.1002/9781444329711.ch39

Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depressed Mood and the MTHFR C677T Variant Affect SLC6A4 Methylation in Infants at Birth
Angela M. Devlin, Ursula Brain, Jehannine Austin, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012201

Cortisol, Behavior, and Heart Rate Reactivity to Immunization Pain at 4 Months Corrected Age in Infants Born Very Preterm
The Clinical Journal of Pain
Ruth E. Grunau, Mai Thanh Tu, Michael F. Whitfield, Tim F. Oberlander, Joanne Weinberg, Wayne Yu, Paul Thiessen, Gisela Gosse, David Scheifele
DOI: 10.1097/ajp.0b013e3181e5bb00

Prenatal Effects of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressants, Serotonin Transporter Promoter Genotype (SLC6A4), and Maternal Mood on Child Behavior at 3 Years of Age
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
Tim F. Oberlander, Michael Papsdorf, Ursula M. Brain, Shaila Misri, Colin Ross, Ruth E. Grunau
DOI: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.51

Physiological correlates of memory recall in infancy: Vagal tone, cortisol, and imitation in preterm and full-term infants at 6 months
Infant Behavior and Development
David W. Haley, Ruth E. Grunau, Joanne Weinberg, Adi Keidar, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.10.007

Antenatal Depression and Anxiety Affect Postpartum Parenting Stress: A Longitudinal, Prospective Study
The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
Shaila Misri, Kristin Kendrick, Tim F Oberlander, Sandhaya Norris, Lianne Tomfohr, Hongbin Zhang, Ruth E Grunau
DOI: 10.1177/070674371005500405

Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Alters Biobehavioral Reactivity to Pain in Newborns
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Tim F. Oberlander, Sandra W. Jacobson, Joanne Weinberg, Ruth E. Grunau, Christopher D. Molteno, Joseph L. Jacobson
DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01137.x

Sustained Neurobehavioral Effects of Exposure to SSRI Antidepressants During Development: Molecular to Clinical Evidence
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
T F Oberlander, J A Gingrich, M S Ansorge
DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2009.201

A register study of the impact of stopping third trimester selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on neonatal healthGestational SSRI exposure and neonatal health
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
W. Warburton, C. Hertzman, T. F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2009.01490.x

Neonatal S100B Protein Levels After Prenatal Exposure to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
J. L. Pawluski, L. A.M. Galea, U. Brain, M. Papsdorf, T. F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-0442

The management of depression during pregnancy: a report from the American Psychiatric Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
General Hospital Psychiatry
Kimberly A. Yonkers, Katherine L. Wisner, Donna E. Stewart, Tim F. Oberlander, Diana L. Dell, Nada Stotland, Susan Ramin, Linda Chaudron, Charles Lockwood
DOI: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2009.04.003

Caregiving behavior and interactions of prenatally depressed mothers (antidepressant-treated and non-antidepressant-treated) during newborn acute pain
Infant Mental Health Journal
Fay F. Warnock, Roger Bakeman, Kim Shearer, Shaila Misri, Tim Oberlander
DOI: 10.1002/imhj.20220

Depression during pregnancy: the potential impact of increased risk for fetal aneuploidy on maternal mood
Clinical Genetics
C Hippman, TF Oberlander, WG Honer, S Misri, JC Austin
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2008.01056.x

Optimizing neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children following prenatal SSRI exposure
Pediatric Health
Tim F Oberlander
DOI: 10.2217/phe.09.56

Contingency Learning and Reactivity in Preterm and Full-Term Infants at 3 Months
David W. Haley, Ruth E. Grunau, Tim F. Oberlander, Joanne Weinberg
DOI: 10.1080/15250000802458682

Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
Ronald G. Barr, Vivien S. H. Quek, Dominique Cousineau, Tim F. Oberlander, Jessica A. Brian, Simon N. Young
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1994.tb11898.x

Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function in 3-month old infants with prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant exposure
Early Human Development
Tim F. Oberlander, Ruth Grunau, Linda Mayes, Wayne Riggs, Dan Rurak, Michael Papsdorf, Shaila Misri, Joanne Weinberg
DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2008.06.008

Effects of timing and duration of gestational exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants: Population-based study
British Journal of Psychiatry
Tim F. Oberlander, William Warburton, Shaila Misri, Jaafar Aghajanian, Clyde Hertzman
DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.107.037101

Prenatal exposure to maternal depression, neonatal methylation of human glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and infant cortisol stress responses
Tim F. Oberlander, Joanne Weinberg, Michael Papsdorf, Ruth Grunau, Shaila Misri, Angela M. Devlin
DOI: 10.4161/epi.3.2.6034

Is It Painful or Not?Discriminant Validity of the Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain (BIIP) Scale
The Clinical Journal of Pain
Liisa Holsti, Ruth E. Grunau, Tim F. Oberlander, Horacio Osiovich
DOI: 10.1097/ajp.0b013e318158c5e5

Pain Management for Children with a Developmental Disability in a Primary Care Setting
Pain in Children
Harold (Hal) Siden, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1007/978-1-59745-476-6_4

Major congenital malformations following prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitors and benzodiazepines using population-based health data
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology
Tim F. Oberlander, William Warburton, Shaila Misri, Wayne Riggs, Jaafar Aghajanian, Clyde Hertzman
DOI: 10.1002/bdrb.20144

Neonatal Risks of Maternal Treatment With Mood Stabilizers—Reply
Archives of General Psychiatry
Tim F. Oberlander, William Warburton, Shaila Misri, Jaafar Aghajanian, Clyde Hertzman
DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.64.7.867

Infant serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) promoter genotype is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes after prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications
Molecular Psychiatry
T F Oberlander, R J Bonaguro, S Misri, M Papsdorf, C J D Ross, E M Simpson
DOI: 10.1038/sj.mp.4002007

Toward comprehensive treatment for postpartum depressed mothers and their infants
BC Medical Journal

Biobehavioural reactivity to pain in preterm infants: a marker of neuromotor development
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
Ruth E Grunau, Michael F Whitfield, Taryn Fay, Liisa Holsti, Timothy Oberlander, Marilynn L Rogers
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2006.tb01298.x

Cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) Gene Locus Heterogeneity: Characterization of Gene Duplication Events
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
A Gaedigk, L Ndjountché, K Divakaran, L DiAnne Bradford, I Zineh, T F Oberlander, D C Brousseau, D G McCarver, J A Johnson, S W Alander, K Wayne Riggs, J Steven Leeder
DOI: 10.1038/sj.clpt.6100033

‘Beliefs about pain among professionals working with children with significant neurologic impairment’
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
Tim F Oberlander, Maureen E O‘Donnell
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2001.tb00734.x

Externalizing and Attentional Behaviors in Children of Depressed Mothers Treated With a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressant During Pregnancy
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
Tim F. Oberlander, Pratibha Reebye, Shaila Misri, Michael Papsdorf, John Kim, Ruth E. Grunau
DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.161.1.22

Pain in Children with Disabilities
Encyclopedia of Pain
Tim F. Oberlander and Kenneth D. Craig
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-29805-2_3090

Behavioral Responses to Pain Are Heightened After Clustered Care in Preterm Infants Born Between 30 and 32 Weeks Gestational Age
The Clinical Journal of Pain
Liisa Holsti, Ruth E. Grunau, Michael F. Whifield, Tim F. Oberlander, Viveca Lindh
DOI: 10.1097/01.ajp.0000210921.10912.47

A Prospective Controlled Study of Neurodevelopment in HIV-Uninfected Children Exposed to Combination Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnancy
A. Alimenti, J. C. Forbes, T. F. Oberlander, D. M. Money, R. E. Grunau, M. P. Papsdorf, E. Maan, L. J. Cole, D. R. Burdge
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-0525

Biobehavioural reactivity to pain in preterm infants: A marker of neuromotor development
Acute Pain
R.E. Grunau, M.F. Whitfield, T. Fay, L. Holsti, T. Oberlander, M.L. Rogers
DOI: 10.1016/j.acpain.2006.08.033

Neonatal Outcomes After Prenatal Exposure to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressants and Maternal Depression Using Population-Based Linked Health Data
Archives of General Psychiatry
Tim F. Oberlander, William Warburton, Shaila Misri, Jaafar Aghajanian, Clyde Hertzman
DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.63.8.898

Internalizing Behaviors in 4-Year-Old Children Exposed in Utero to Psychotropic Medications
American Journal of Psychiatry
Shaila Misri, Pratibha Reebye, Kristin Kendrick, Diana Carter, Deirdre Ryan, Ruth E. Grunau, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1176/ajp.2006.163.6.1026

Summary Proceedings From the Neonatal Pain-Control Group
Kanwaljeet J.S. Anand, Jacob V. Aranda, Charles B. Berde, ShaAvhrée Buckman, Edmund V. Capparelli, Waldemar Carlo, Patricia Hummel, C. Celeste Johnston, John Lantos, Victoria Tutag-Lehr, Anne M. Lynn, Lynne G. Maxwell, Tim F. Oberlander, Tonse N.K. Raju, Sulpicio G. Soriano, Anna Taddio, Gary A. Walco
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2005-0620c

Stereoselective disposition of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine during pregnancy and breast-feeding
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
John Kim, K. Wayne Riggs, Shaila Misri, Nancy Kent, Tim F. Oberlander, Ruth E. Grunau, Colleen Fitzgerald, Dan W. Rurak
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02538.x

Body Movements: An Important Additional Factor in Discriminating Pain From Stress in Preterm Infants
The Clinical Journal of Pain
Liisa Holsti, Ruth E Grunau, Tim F Oberlander, Michael F Whitfield, Joanne Weinberg
DOI: 10.1097/01.ajp.0000146163.30776.44

Analgesia and local anesthesia during invasive procedures in the neonate
Clinical Therapeutics
K.J.S. Anand, C. Celeste^Johnston, Tim F. Oberlander, Anna Taddio, Victoria Tutag Lehr, Gary A. Walco
DOI: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2005.06.018

Prior pain induces heightened motor responses during clustered care in preterm infants in the NICU
Early Human Development
Liisa Holsti, Ruth E. Grunau, Tim F. Oberlander, Michael F. Whitfield
DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2004.08.002

Pain Reactivity in 2-Month-Old Infants After Prenatal and Postnatal Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Medication Exposure
T. F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2004-0420

Neonatal procedural pain exposure predicts lower cortisol and behavioral reactivity in preterm infants in the NICU
Ruth E. Grunau, Liisa Holsti, David W. Haley, Tim Oberlander, Joanne Weinberg, Alfonso Solimano, Michael F. Whitfield, Colleen Fitzgerald, Wayne Yu
DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2004.10.020

Analgesia and anesthesia for neonates: Study design and ethical issues
Clinical Therapeutics
K.J.S. Anand and Jacob V. Aranda and Charles B. Berde and ShaAvhrée Buckman and Edmund V. Capparelli and Waldemar A. Carlo and Patricia Hummel and John Lantos and C. Celeste Johnston and Victoria Tutag Lehr and Anne M. Lynn and Lynne G. Maxwell and Tim F. Oberlander and Tonse N.K. Raju and Sulpicio G. Soriano and Anna Taddio and Gary A. Walco
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2005.06.021

Relation between Prenatal Maternal Mood and Anxiety and Neonatal Health
The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
Shaila Misri, Tim F Oberlander, Nichole Fairbrother, Diana Carter, Deirdre Ryan, Annie J Kuan, Pratibha Reebye
DOI: 10.1177/070674370404901006

Specific Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program Movements Are Associated With Acute Pain in Preterm Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
L. Holsti
DOI: 10.1542/peds.114.1.65

Expression of Pain in Children With Autism
The Clinical Journal of Pain
Rami Nader, Tim F. Oberlander, Christine T. Chambers, Kenneth D. Craig
DOI: 10.1097/00002508-200403000-00005

Does Prone or Supine Position Influence Pain Responses in Preterm Infants at 32 Weeks Gestational Age?
The Clinical Journal of Pain
Ruth Eckstein Grunau, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares, Liisa Holsti, Tim F. Oberlander, Michael F. Whitfield
DOI: 10.1097/00002508-200403000-00003

Pharmacologic Factors Associated With Transient Neonatal Symptoms Following Prenatal Psychotropic Medication Exposure
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Tim F. Oberlander, Shaila Misri, Colleen E. Fitzgerald, Xanthoula Kostaras, Dan Rurak, Wayne Riggs
DOI: 10.4088/jcp.v65n0214

Are there developmentally distinct motor indicators of pain in preterm infants?
Early Human Development
Sara J Morison, Liisa Holsti, Ruth Eckstein Grunau, Michael F Whitfield, Tim F Oberlander, Herbert W.P Chan, Linda Williams
DOI: 10.1016/s0378-3782(03)00044-6

Methodological considerations for the use of heart rate variability as a measure of pain reactivity in vulnerable infants
Clinics in Perinatology
Tim Oberlander, J.Philip Saul
DOI: 10.1016/s0095-5108(02)00013-1

Does Parenchymal Brain Injury Affect Biobehavioral Pain Responses in Very Low Birth Weight Infants at 32 Weeks' Postconceptional Age?
T. F. Oberlander, R. E. Grunau, C. Fitzgerald, M. F. Whitfield
DOI: 10.1542/peds.110.3.570

Prolonged Prenatal Psychotropic Medication Exposure Alters Neonatal Acute Pain Response
Pediatric Research
Tim F Oberlander, Ruth Eckstein Grunau, Colleen Fitzgerald, Ann-Louise Ellwood, Shaila Misri, Dan Rurak, Kenneth Wayne Riggs
DOI: 10.1203/00006450-200204000-00008

Pain Assessment and Management in Infants and Young Children with Developmental Disabilities
Infants & Young Children
Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1097/00001163-200114020-00006

Demographic and Therapeutic Determinants of Pain Reactivity in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates at 32 Weeks' Postconceptional Age
R. E. Grunau, T. F. Oberlander, M. F. Whitfield, C. Fitzgerald, S. K. Lee
DOI: 10.1542/peds.107.1.105

Pain reactivity in former extremely low birth weight infants at corrected age 8 months compared with term born controls
Infant Behavior and Development
Ruth Eckstein Grunau, Tim F. Oberlander, Michael F. Whitfield, Colleen Fitzgerald, Sara J. Morison, J. Philip Saul
DOI: 10.1016/s0163-6383(01)00065-0

Relations Between Behavioral and Cardiac Autonomic Reactivity to Acute Pain in Preterm Neonates
The Clinical Journal of Pain
Sara J. Morison, Ruth E. Grunau, Tim F. Oberlander, Michael F. Whitfield
DOI: 10.1097/00002508-200112000-00010

Prenatal and Breast Milk Morphine Exposure Following Maternal Intrathecal Morphine Treatment
Journal of Human Lactation
Tim F. Oberlander, Paula Robeson, Val Ward, R. Stuart Huckin, A. Kamani, Arthur Harpur, William McDonald
DOI: 10.1177/089033440001600210

Biobehavioral Pain Responses in Former Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants at Four Months' Corrected Age
Tim F. Oberlander, Ruth Eckstein Grunau, Michael F. Whitfield, Colleen Fitzgerald, Sandy Pitfield, J. Philip Saul
DOI: 10.1542/peds.105.1.e6

Evaluating Treatment Outcome in an Interdisciplinary Pediatric Pain Service
Pain Research and Management
Susan M Bennett, Christine T Chambers, Doria Bellows, Colleen A Court, Elizabeth Huntsman, Carolyne Montgomery, Tim F Oberlander, Michelle Sheriff, Harold Siden
DOI: 10.1155/2000/767058

Pain Management of Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa in an 11-Year-Old Boy
Pediatric Dermatology
Yao-Kun Chiu, Julie S. Prendiville, Susan M. Bennett, Carolyne J. Montgomery, Tim F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1046/j.1525-1470.1999.00120.x

Biobehavioral Responses to Acute Pain in Adolescents with a Significant Neurologic Impairment
The Clinical Journal of Pain
Tim F. Oberlander, Cheryl A. Gilbert, Christine T. Chambers, Maureen E. O'Donnell, Kenneth D. Craig
DOI: 10.1097/00002508-199909000-00007

Pain in Children with Significant Neurological Impairment
Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics
DOI: 10.1097/00004703-199908000-00006

The Developmental Character of Cardiac Autonomic Responses to an Acute Noxious Event in 4- and 8-Month-Old Healthy Infants
Pediatric Research
Tim F Oberlander, Ruth Eckstein Grunau, Sandy Pitfield, Michael F Whitfield, J Philip Saul
DOI: 10.1203/00006450-199904010-00011

Bedside application of the Neonatal Facial Coding System in pain assessment of premature infants
Ruth Eckstein Grunau, Tim Oberlander, Liisa Holsti, Michael F. Whitfield
DOI: 10.1016/s0304-3959(98)00046-3

Cardiac Autonomic and Behavioral Responses to Acute Pain in 4 Month Old Infants † 80
Pediatric Research
Tim F. Oberlander, Ruth V.E. Grunau, Micheal F. Whitfield, J. Philip Saul
DOI: 10.1203/00006450-199704001-00101

Developmental character and long-term consequences of pain in infants and children
Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Anand, Kanwaljeet and Grunau, Ruth and Oberlander, Tim

Halothane and Cardiac Autonomic Control in Infants: Assessment with Quantitative Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia
Pediatric Research
Tim F Oberlander, C B Berde, J Philip Saul
DOI: 10.1203/00006450-199611000-00010

Time and frequency domain methods for heart rate variability analysis: A methodological comparison
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.1995.tb02101.x

Infants Tolerate Spinal Anesthesia with Minimal Overall Autonomic ChangesAnalysis of Heart Rate Variability in Former Premature Infants Undergoing Hernia Repair
Anesthesia & Analgesia
Tim F. Oberlander, Charles B. Berde, Kar H. Lam, L. A. Rappaport, J. Philip Saul
DOI: 10.1097/00000539-199501000-00005

Recurrent abdominal pain: evaluation and management
International Seminars in Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

Advice Seeking and Appropriate Use of a Pediatric Emergency Department
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
T. F. Oberlander
DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.1993.02160320065021

Recurrent Abdominal Pain During Childhood
Pediatrics in Review
T. F. Oberlander, L. A. Rappaport
DOI: 10.1542/pir.14-8-313

Short-term Effects of Feed Composition on Sleeping and Crying in Newborns
Oberlander, Tim F. and Barr, Ronald G. and Young, Simon N. and Brian, Jessica A.


Current Projects
My research extends from studies of child behaviour at the individual to population levels that seeks to understand how in utero exposure to maternal mood and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants sets pathways for both developmental risk and resiliency during early childhood. My work provides strong evidence that both influences have an impact on stress regulation and mood in childhood, possibly reflecting early changes in central serotonin (5HT) levels.

Increasingly my work is showing that the developing brain has a remarkable capacity for change, such that even in the face of adversity, some children do very well. The goal of my work is to figure out how and why this happens, and use these findings to identify opportunities for interventions that reduce risk. Emerging findings are beginning to point to ways that could possibly assist clinicians and families in understanding critical issues that influence a child’s emotional well-being and academic success later in school. As Project Lead for CFRI’s 3T MR Imaging facility I have the opportunity to advance studies of early brain development using advance imaging technology.

I have three main areas of research:

Developmental effects of prenatal psychotropic medication exposure – fetal, neonatal, infant and childhood outcomes: This research focuses on studies of the developmental impact of prenatal exposure to psychotropic medications (i.e. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor [SSRI] antidepressants) and depressed maternal mood that extends from fetal periods to early adolescence. Biobehavioural, pharmacologic and genetic factors that moderate fetal exposure are studied. Outcomes of particular interest are pain/stress reactivity (neuroendocrine, heart variability), cognitive function (executive functions), attention threat bias, and measures of arousal and emotional regulation. This work also includes examination of the role of key genetic (i.e. SLC6A4) variations and epigenetic (i.e. methylation) factors that may also contribute to altered early serotonin levels.

Pharmacoepidemiology and Child Development: Since 2004 we have used population level health data linking antenatal maternal prescription records with birth/neonatal health records to distinguish the impact of maternal mood from in utero SSRI exposure. We have reported novel findings indicting that the effects of gestational maternal SSRI use differ from those of maternal mental illness and that neonatal outcomes vary with the timing and duration of prenatal SSRI exposure. Recently, we have started examining developmental and behavioural outcomes (learning, mood and autism spectrum disorder risk, ASD) related to in utero SSRI exposure, socioeconomic conditions and maternal mental health.

Pain and children with developmental disabilities: This research seeks to understand pain in children with developmental disabilities. The current focus of this work is to improve pain assessment management among this population of children.

Research Methodology
Fetal, neonatal and child behavioural state regulation
Non invasive stress measures (cardiac autonomic (RSA, PEP), salivary alpha-amylase & cortisol)
Integration of genetic and epigenetic factors to study interactions reflecting the impact of early experience
Population-based linked child health data


CIHR Operating Grant - Project: "Attention bias and executive functions in 9-14 year olds following prenatal antidepressant exposure" (2014-2019)

CIHR Operating Grant - Project: "Developmental origins of autism: A population level linked data study of prenatal antidepressant medication exposure" (2014-2017)

CIHR Operating Grant - Project: "Early child behavior: Relations to early brain development and maternal mood" (2012-2017)

Honours & Awards

Early Career UBC Scholar, The Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, UBC (2003-2004)

Human Early Learning Partnership, Senior Scholar Award (2002-2005)

R. Howard Webster Professor in Early Childhood Development (2004-present)

Research Group Members

Ursula Brain, Research Manager, Healthy Starts Program
Dawna Brown
Amanda Chao
Marie-Noelle Wharton
Radhika Shankar
Alicia Tonello
Angie Ip
Kayleigh Campbell
Mina Park
Meghna Rajaprakash
Ella Weik
Jada Holmes
Naama Rotem-Kohavi
Heather Beveridge
Elizabeth Scott
Colleen Pawliuk
Sarah Hutchison, Postdoctoral Fellow