Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of inherited mental retardation with a worldwide prevalence of 1/4000 in males and of 1/8000 in females. Individuals with FXS exhibit a range of emotional and neurocognitive features including intellectual disability hyperactivity and attention problems, executive function deficits, hyperreactivity to stimuli, anxiety and mood instability, and ASDs. Fragile X syndrome is caused by a mutation int eh FMR1 gene leading to a deficit in FMR1 gene protein (FMRP). In general, the severity of the FXS physical phenotype and intellectual impairment is correlated with the magnitude of the FMRP deficit.

At this time, there is no specific treatment for FXS and clinical practice varies. The most common medications used to treat the FXS symptoms are stimulants (i.e. methylphenidate), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), alphaadrenoreceptor agonists, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotic medication. The use of any of these drugs is compromised by their limited efficacy and safety profile.

In recent years, there has been a new understanding of the neurobiology of FXS that involves the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). Based on the location and on the activity of mGluR in the central nervous system, there is a plausible relation between many of the phenotypic features in FXS and the deregulation of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) activation. If this hypothesis is correct, mGluR antagonists should be a novel pharmacological approach to normalize the deficits caused by the lack of FMRP.


Rare deleterious mutations of HNRNP genes result in shared neurodevelopmental disorders.
Genome medicine
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Evans, C. and Gallentree, D. and Hamer, S. and Kraus, A. and Markova, I. and Raman, A. and Rowett, L. and Andrew, A. and Frost, J. and Noad, R. and Cosgrove, J. and Gallantree, D. and Hobson, E. and Jamieson, S. and Longthorpe, M. and Musgrave, H. and Peacy, C. and Toscano, J. and Wild, S. and Yardumian, P. and Clayton, C. and Dipple, H. and Freire-Patino, D. and Hallam, C. and Middleton, J. and Alusi, S. and Davies, R. and Foy, K. and Gerrans, E. and Pate, L. and Anjum, U. and Coebergh, J. and Eddy, C. and Lahiri, N. and McEntagart, M. and Patton, M. and Peterson, M. and Rose, S. and Andrews, T. and Dougherty, A. and Golding, C. and Kavalier, F. and Laing, H. and Lashwood, A. and Robertson, D. and Ruddy, D. and Santhouse, A. and Whaite, A. and Gosling (nee Brown), S. and Bruno, S. and Chu, E. and Doherty, K. and Haider, S. and Hensman, D. and Lewis, M. and Novak, M. and Patel, A. and Robertson, N. and Rosser, E. and Tabrizi, S. and Taylor, R. and Warner, T. and Wild, E. and Ackermann, O. and Duport, S. and Scott, A. and Stoy, N. and Vaughn, J. and Arran, N. and Bek, J. and Craufurd, D. and Hare, M. and Howard, L. and Huson, S. and Johnson, L. and Jones, M. and Krishnamoorthy, A. and Murphy, H. and Oughton, E. and Partington-Jones, L. and Sollom, A. and Snowden, J. and Stopford, C. and Thompson, J. and Trender-Gerhard, I. and Verstraelen (formerly Ritchie), N. and Westmoreland, L. and Cass, G. and Davidson, L. and Davison, J. and Fullerton, N. and Holmes, K. and Komati, S. and McDonnell, S. and Mohammed, Z. and Morgan, K. and Savage, L. and Singh, B. and Wood, J. and Knight, C. and O'Neill, M. and Purkayastha, D.D. and Nemeth, A.H. and Siuda, G. and Valentine, R. and Dixon, K. and Armstrong, R. and Harrison, D. and Hughes, M. and Large, S. and Donovan, J.O. and Palmer, A. and Parkinson, A. and Soltysiak, B. and Timings, L. and Williams, J. and Burn, J. and Bailey, W. and Coleman, C. and Majeed, T. and Verstraelen (Ritchie), N. and Barrett, W. and Ho, A. and Bandmann, O. and Bradbury, A. and Fairtlough, H. and Fillingham, K. and Foustanos, I. and Gill, P. and Kazoka, M. and O'Donovan, K. and Nevitt, L. and Taylor, C. and Tidswell, K. and Kipps, C. and MacKinnon, L. and Agarwal, V. and Hayward, E. and Gunner, K. and Harris, K. and Anderson, M. and Heywood, M. and Keys, L. and Smalley, S. and El-Nimr, G. and Duffell, A. and Wood, S. and Kennedy (nee Smith), K. and Gowers, L. and Powell, K. and Bethwaite, P. and Edwards, R. and Fuller, K. and Phillips, M. and Tan, L. and Lau, P.N. and Pica, E. and Roos, R.A.
DOI: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2018.11.009

NBEA: Developmental disease gene with early generalized epilepsy phenotypes.
Annals of neurology
Mulhern MS and Stumpel C and Stong N and Brunner HG and Bier L and Lippa N and Riviello J and Rouhl RPW and Kempers M and Pfundt R and Stegmann APA and Kukolich MK and Telegrafi A and Sands TT
DOI: 10.1002/ana.25350
PubMed: 30269351

Diagnostic yield and treatment impact of targeted exome sequencing in early-onset epilepsy
Demos, M. and Guella, I. and McKenzie, M.B. and Buerki, S.E. and Evans, D.M. and Toyota, E.B. and Boelman, C. and Huh, L.L. and Datta, A. and Michoulas, A. and Selby, K. and Bjornson, B.H. and Horvath, G. and Lopez-Rangel, E. and van Karnebeek, C.D.M. and Salvarinova, R. and Slade, E. and Eydoux, P. and Adam, S. and van Allen, M.I. and Nelson, T.N. and Bolbocean, C. and Connolly, M.B. and Farrer, M.J.
DOI: 10.1101/139329

BMPER variants associated with a novel, attenuated subtype of diaphanospondylodysostosis
Journal of Human Genetics
Zong, Z. and Tees, S. and Miyanji, F. and Fauth, C. and Reilly, C. and Lopez, E. and Tredwell, S. and Paul Goldberg, Y. and Delaney, A. and Eydoux, P. and Van Allen, M. and Lehman, A.
DOI: 10.1038/jhg.2015.116

Genotype–phenotype analysis of 18q12.1-q12.2 copy number variation in autism
European Journal of Medical Genetics
Peter Wang and Prescilla Carrion and Ying Qiao and Christine Tyson and Monica Hrynchak and Kristina Calli and Elena Lopez-Rangel and Joris Andrieux and Bruno Delobel and Bénédicte Duban-Bedu and Ann-Charlotte Thuresson and Göran Annerén and Xudong Liu and Evica Rajcan-Separovic and M.E. Suzanne Lewis
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2013.05.006

Clinical application of 2.7M Cytogenetics array for CNV detection in subjects with idiopathic autism and/or intellectual disability
Clinical Genetics
Qiao, Y. and Tyson, C. and Hrynchak, M. and Lopez-Rangel, E. and Hildebrand, J. and Martell, S. and Fawcett, C. and Kasmara, L. and Calli, K. and Harvard, C. and Liu, X. and Holden, J.J.A. and Lewis, S.M.E. and Rajcan-Separovic, E.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2012.01860.x

The value of a genetic diagnosis for individuals with intellectual disabilities: Optimising healthcare and function across the lifespan
British Journal of Developmental Disabilities
Lopez-Rangel, E. and Mickelson, E.C.R. and Lewis, M.E.S.
DOI: 10.1179/096979508799103215

The neoplastic risk in children with noonan syndrome and Costello syndrome
Clinical Genetics
Lopez-Rangel, E.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2006.00726_2.x

Overlapping clinical phenotypes: The road to identifying dysmorphology signalling pathways and their associated risks
Clinical Genetics
Lopez-Rangel, E.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2006.00726_1.x

Loud and clear evidence for gene silencing by epigenetic mechanisms in autism spectrum and related neurodevelopmental disorders.
Clinical genetics
Lopez-Rangel E and Lewis ME
DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2006.00543a.x
PubMed: 16451129

The tale of a belly button: Rieger syndrome
Clinical Pediatrics
Khashu, M. and Osiovich, H. and Rudman, D. and Lopez, E. and Langlois, S.
DOI: 10.1177/0009922806289623

Systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune disorders in children with Noonan syndrome.
American journal of medical genetics. Part A
Lopez-Rangel E and Malleson PN and Lirenman DS and Roa B and Wiszniewska J and Lewis ME
DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.31017
PubMed: 16283670

Prenatal exposure to fluconazole: an identifiable dysmorphic phenotype.
Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology
Lopez-Rangel E and Van Allen MI
DOI: 10.1002/bdra.20189
PubMed: 16265639

Molecular and clinical correlation study of Williams-Beuren syndrome: No evidence of molecular factors in the deletion region or imprinting affecting clinical outcome.
American journal of medical genetics
Wang MS and Schinzel A and Kotzot D and Balmer D and Casey R and Chodirker BN and Gyftodimou J and Petersen MB and Lopez-Rangel E and Robinson WP
DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1096-8628(19990903)86:13.0.co;2-4
PubMed: 10440826

Molecular and clinical correlation study of Williams-Beuren syndrome: No evidence of molecular factors in the deletion region or imprinting affecting clinical outcome
American Journal of Medical Genetics
Wang, M.S. and Schinzel, A. and Kotzot, D. and Balmer, D. and Casey, R. and Chodirker, B.N. and Gyftodimou, J. and Petersen, M.B. and Lopez-Rangel, E. and Robinson, W.P.
DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19990903)86:13.0.CO;2-4

Bone dysplasias, nontraditional mechanisms of inheritance and monozygotic twins.
Pediatric radiology
Hall JG and Lopez-Rangel E
DOI: 10.1007/s002470050160
PubMed: 9133355

An introduction to genomic imprinting and parent of origin effects.
Acta geneticae medicae et gemellologiae
Hall JG and Lopez-Rangel E
DOI: 10.1017/s0001566000001100
PubMed: 8872011

Embryologic development and monozygotic twinning.
Acta geneticae medicae et gemellologiae
Hall JG and Lopez-Rangel E
DOI: 10.1017/s0001566000001094
PubMed: 8872010

An introduction to genomic imprinting and parent of origin effects
Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae
Hall, J.G. and Lopez-Rangel, E.
DOI: 10.1017/S0001566000001100

Embryologic development and monozygotic twinning
Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae
Hall, J.G. and Lopez-Rangel, E.
DOI: 10.1017/S0001566000001094

New mechanisms for genetic disease and nontraditional modes of inheritance.
Advances in pediatrics
Langlois S and Lopez-Rangel E and Hall JG
PubMed: 8540441

New mechanisms for genetic disease and nontraditional modes of inheritance.
Advances in pediatrics
Langlois S and Lopez-Rangel E and Hall JG
PubMed: 8540441

New mechanisms for genetic disease and nontraditional modes of inheritance.
Advances in pediatrics
Langlois, S. and Lopez-Rangel, E. and Hall, J.G.

Non-traditional forms of inheritance in skeletal dysplasias.
Pediatric radiology
Hall JG and Lopez-Rangel E
DOI: 10.1007/bf02011905
PubMed: 7700715

Non-traditional forms of inheritance in skeletal dysplasias
Pediatric Radiology
Hall, J.G. and Lopez-Rangel, E.
DOI: 10.1007/BF02011905

Partial duplication of 3q (q25.1-->q26.1) without the Brachmann-de Lange phenotype.
American journal of medical genetics
Lopez-Rangel E and Dill FJ and Hrynchak MA and Van Allen MI
DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.1320470727
PubMed: 8291525

Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome in a child carrying an inherited inversion of chromosome 7.
American journal of medical genetics
Lopez-Rangel E and Hrynchak M and Friedman JM
DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.1320470306
PubMed: 8135275

Williams syndrome in adults.
American journal of medical genetics
Lopez-Rangel E and Maurice M and McGillivray B and Friedman JM
DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.1320440605
PubMed: 1481839


Current Projects
Clinical Research Trials of mGluR antagonists for the treatment of Fragile X syndrome in pediatric and adult patients.

Honours & Awards

Scholarship to Study Abroad. Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Sept 1990 - Sept 1991

Summer Student Research Scholarship. Vancouver Foundation. Vancouver, British Columbia. 1991.

Effie E. Lefaux Scholarship in Mental Retardation. University of British Columbia. 1991.

Research Group Members

Maria Chan, Division Assistant, Sunnyhill