Endometriosis affects one in ten women, and is a common cause of pelvic pain and infertility. It is a condition where tissue from inside the womb, grows outside the womb, typically elsewhere inside the abdomen. In particular, endometriosis causes pelvic pain with intercourse (deep dyspareunia), which can have a devastating impact on women’s quality-of-life and relationships.

The focus of my research is on how endometriosis causes deep dyspareunia. I am investigating the genetic, cellular, nervous system, and psychological factors that lead to pain with intercourse in endometriosis. The goal is to identify the ideal treatments to reduce pain and improve sexual function in endometriosis.


Chronic pelvic pain in an interdisciplinary setting: 1-year prospective cohort
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Catherine Allaire, Christina Williams, Sonja Bodmer-Roy, Sean Zhu, Kristina Arion, Kristin Ambacher, Jessica Wu, Ali Yosef, Fontayne Wong, Heather Noga, Susannah Britnell, Holly Yager, Mohamed A. Bedaiwy, Arianne Y. Albert, Sarka Lisonkova, Paul J. Yong
DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.10.002

Reproductive Outcomes after Fertility-Sparing Surgery for Focal and Diffuse Adenomyosis: a Systematic Review
Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Justin Tan, Sophie Moriarty, Omur Taskin, Catherine Allaire, Christina Williams, Paul Yong, Mohamed A. Bedaiwy
DOI: 10.1016/j.jmig.2017.12.020

Endometriosis and endometriosis-associated cancers: new insights into the molecular mechanisms of ovarian cancer development
Amy Dawson, Marta Llauradó Fernandez, Michael Anglesio, Paul J Yong, Mark S Carey
DOI: 10.3332/ecancer.2018.803

HOXB4 Immunoreactivity in Endometrial Tissues From Women With or Without Endometriosis
Reproductive Sciences
Ghadeer M. AlKusayer, Julia R. Pon, Bo Peng, Christian Klausen, Sarka Lisonkova, Mary Kinloch, Paul Yong, Eman M. S. Muhammad, Peter C. K. Leung, Mohamed A. Bedaiwy
DOI: 10.1177/1933719117732164

Deep Dyspareunia in Endometriosis: A Proposed Framework Based on Pain Mechanisms and Genito-Pelvic Pain Penetration Disorder
Sexual Medicine Reviews
Paul J. Yong
DOI: 10.1016/j.sxmr.2017.06.005

Temporal trends in severe morbidity associated with ectopic pregnancy requiring hospitalization
Fertility and Sterility
S. Lisonkova, Q. Wen, L. Abdellatif, S. Alfaraj, P. Yong, M.A. Bedaiwy
DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2017.07.321

Anatomic Sites and Associated Clinical Factors for Deep Dyspareunia
Sexual Medicine
Paul J. Yong, Christina Williams, Ali Yosef, Fontayne Wong, Mohamed A. Bedaiwy, Sarka Lisonkova, Catherine Allaire
DOI: 10.1016/j.esxm.2017.07.001

Differential expression of Kisspeptin and its receptor in eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with and without endometriosis
Fertility and Sterility
A.O. Abdelkareem, A. Ait-Allah, S.M. Rasheed, Y.A. Helmy, C. Allaire, B. Peng, P. Yong, M.A. Bedaiwy
DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2017.07.146

Factors Associated with Severity of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms in Patients with Endometriosis
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
Caroline E. Lee, Paul J. Yong, Christina Williams, Catherine Allaire
DOI: 10.1016/j.jogc.2017.06.025

Pain Catastrophizing and Pain Health-related Quality-of-life in Endometriosis
The Clinical Journal of Pain
Allison E. McPeak, Catherine Allaire, Christina Williams, Arianne Albert, Sarka Lisonkova, Paul J. Yong
DOI: 10.1097/ajp.0000000000000539

Nerve Growth Factor Is Associated With Sexual Pain in Women With Endometriosis
Reproductive Sciences
Bo Peng, Hong Zhan, Fahad Alotaibi, Ghadeer M. Alkusayer, Mohamed A. Bedaiwy, Paul J. Yong
DOI: 10.1177/1933719117716778

New developments in the medical treatment of endometriosis
Fertility and Sterility
Mohamed A. Bedaiwy, Sukinah Alfaraj, Paul Yong, Robert Casper
DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.12.025

Hospital-associated Costs of Chronic Pelvic Pain in Canada: A Population-based Descriptive Study
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
Innie Chen, Kednapa Thavorn, Minxue Shen, Yvette Goddard, Paul Yong, George S. MacRae, Corrine Nishi, Ayah Matar, Catherine Allaire
DOI: 10.1016/j.jogc.2016.12.008

An interdisciplinary approach to endometriosis-associated persistent pelvic pain
Journal of Endometriosis and Pelvic Pain Disorders
Catherine Allaire, Tuba Aksoy, Mohamed Bedaiwy, Susannah Britnell, Heather L. Noga, Holly Yager, Paul J. Yong
DOI: 10.5301/jeppd.5000284

Endometriosis-associated Ovarian Cancers
Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
DOI: 10.1097/grf.0000000000000320

Up-regulated hyaluronan synthase 2 mediates epidermal growth factor-induced cell migration and invasion in human endometriotic stromal cells
Fertility and Sterility
B. Peng, H. Zhan, P. Yong, P.C. Leung, J. Lin, M.A. Bedaiwy
DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.07.797

Abdominal Wall Pain in Women With Chronic Pelvic Pain
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
Justin Mui, Catherine Allaire, Christina Williams, Paul J. Yong
DOI: 10.1016/j.jogc.2015.11.003

Teaching Vaginal Surgery to Junior Residents: Initial Validation of 3 Novel Procedure-Specific Low-Fidelity Models
Journal of Surgical Education
Roxana Geoffrion, Michael W. Suen, Nicole A. Koenig, Paul Yong, Erin Brennand, Neeraj Mehra, Maryse Larouche, Terry Lee, Nicole J. Todd
DOI: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2015.09.004

Multifactorial contributors to the severity of chronic pelvic pain in women
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ali Yosef, Catherine Allaire, Christina Williams, Abdel Ghaffar Ahmed, Tarek Al-Hussaini, Mohamad S. Abdellah, Fontayne Wong, Sarka Lisonkova, Paul J. Yong
DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2016.07.023

Medical Management of Endometriosis in Patients with Chronic Pelvic Pain
Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Catherine Allaire, Paul Yong, Sukinah Alfaraj, Mohamed Bedaiwy
DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1597308

Expression of HOXB4 in endometrial tissues from women with or without endometriosis
Fertility and Sterility
G.M. Alkusayer, B. Peng, C. Klausen, S. Lisonkova, M. Kinloch, P. Yong, M.A. Bedaiwy
DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.07.489

An Evaluation Model for a Multidisciplinary Chronic Pelvic Pain Clinic: Application of the RE-AIM Framework
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
Innie Chen, Deborah Money, Paul Yong, Christina Williams, Catherine Allaire
DOI: 10.1016/s1701-2163(15)30151-1

Multifocal endometriotic lesions associated with cancer are clonal and carry a high mutation burdenCancer-associated multifocal endometriotic lesions; clonal and with high mutation burden
The Journal of Pathology
Michael S Anglesio, Ali Bashashati, Yi Kan Wang, Janine Senz, Gavin Ha, Winnie Yang, Mohamed R Aniba, Leah M Prentice, Hossein Farahani, Hector Li Chang, Anthony N Karnezis, Marco A Marra, Paul J Yong, Martin Hirst, Blake Gilks, Sohrab P Shah, David G Huntsman
DOI: 10.1002/path.4516

Impact of a Multidisciplinary Vulvodynia Program on Sexual Functioning and Dyspareunia
The Journal of Sexual Medicine
Lori A. Brotto, Paul Yong, Kelly B. Smith, Leslie A. Sadownik
DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12718

Concurrent Deep–Superficial Dyspareunia: Prevalence, Associations, and Outcomes in a Multidisciplinary Vulvodynia Program
The Journal of Sexual Medicine
Paul J. Yong, Leslie Sadownik, Lori A. Brotto
DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12729

Nerve Bundles and Deep Dyspareunia in Endometriosis
Reproductive Sciences
Christina Williams, Lien Hoang, Ali Yosef, Fahad Alotaibi, Catherine Allaire, Lori Brotto, Ian S. Fraser, Mohamed A. Bedaiwy, Tony L. Ng, Anna F. Lee, Paul J. Yong
DOI: 10.1177/1933719115623644

Routes of hysterectomy in women with benign uterine disease in the Vancouver Coastal Health and Providence Health Care regions: a retrospective cohort analysis
Canadian Medical Association Journal
Chen, Innie and Lisonkova, Sarka and Allaire, Catherine and Williams, Christina and Yong, Paul and Joseph, K.S.
DOI: 10.9778/cmajo.20130080
PubMed: 25485254

Pelvic Floor Tenderness in the Etiology of Superficial Dyspareunia
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
Paul J. Yong, Justin Mui, Catherine Allaire, Christina Williams
DOI: 10.1016/s1701-2163(15)30414-x

Laparoscopic Versus Abdominal Myomectomy: Practice Patterns and Health Care Use in British Columbia
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
Innie Chen, Sarka Lisonkova, K.S. Joseph, Christina Williams, Paul Yong, Catherine Allaire
DOI: 10.1016/s1701-2163(15)30484-9

Bladder Base Tenderness in the Etiology of Deep Dyspareunia
The Journal of Sexual Medicine
Melica Nourmoussavi, Sonja Bodmer-Roy, Justin Mui, Narissa Mawji, Christina Williams, Catherine Allaire, Paul J. Yong
DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12708

Pilot Study of Pelvic Girdle Pain in Women With and Without Laparoscopically Diagnosed Endometriosis
International Journal of Surgery Research & Practice
Paul J Yong
DOI: 10.23937/2378-3397/1410011

Needs Assessment of Obstetrician-Gynaecologists in British Columbia for the Care of Women with Endometriosis and Chronic Pelvic Pain
Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
Paul Yong
DOI: 10.4172/2161-038x.1000128

Is Endometriosis a Surgical Disease?
Surgery: Current Research
Paul J Yong, Christina William
DOI: 10.4172/2161-1076.1000164

Surgery for pelvic pain in endometriosis
Pain Management Yearbook 2013

Endovaginal ultrasound-assisted pain mapping in endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
P. J. Yong, C. Sutton, M. Suen, C. Williams
DOI: 10.3109/01443615.2013.821971

Laparoscopic Inguinal Exploration and Mesh Placement for Chronic Pelvic Pain
JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
Paul J. Yong, Christina Williams, Catherine Allaire
DOI: 10.4293/108680812x13517013317310

Fertility awareness in gynecology and women’s health: application to family planning and endometriosis
Linacre Quarterly

Development of an interdisciplinary pelvic pain and endometriosis clinic
BC Medical Journal

Choosing the right surgery for endometriosis and pelvic pain
Endometriosis: Risk Factors, Symptoms, and Management

Infertility management in a Canadian family practice
Linacre Quarterly

Surgery for pelvic pain in endometriosis
Journal of Pain Management

Clinical Predictors of Endometriosis in the Infertility Population: Is There a Better Way to Determine Who Needs a Laparoscopy?
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
Kellie Whitehill, Paul J. Yong, Christina Williams
DOI: 10.1016/s1701-2163(16)35271-9

Prediction of Pediatric Outcome after Prenatal Diagnosis and Expectant Antenatal Management of Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Paul J. Yong, Peter Von Dadelszen, Daniela Carpara, Ken Lim, Nancy Kent, Francine Tessier, Marie-France Delisle, Titus Wong, Geoffrey Blair, Erik D. Skarsgard
DOI: 10.1159/000331936

Protein Kinase Profiling in Miscarriage: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Trisomic Pregnancy
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
Paul J. Yong, Deborah E. McFadden, Wendy P. Robinson
DOI: 10.1016/s1701-2163(16)35461-5

Transvaginal Repair and Graft Interposition for Rectovaginal Fistula Due to a Neglected PessaryCase Report and Review of the Literature
Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Paul J. Yong, Matthew M. Garrey, Roxana Geoffrion
DOI: 10.1097/spv.0b013e3182282c4e

Developmental Origin of Chorionic Villus Cultures From Spontaneous Abortion and Chorionic Villus Sampling
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
Paul J. Yong, Deborah E. McFadden, Wendy P. Robinson
DOI: 10.1016/s1701-2163(16)34877-0

Monochorionic Diamniotic Triplet Pregnancy With Prenatal Diagnosis of Cord Entanglement
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
Paul J. Yong, Duncan F. Farquharson, Jagdeep Ubhi
DOI: 10.1016/s1701-2163(16)34455-3

Placental Weight in Pregnancies With Trisomy Confined to the Placenta
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
Paul J. Yong, Peter von Dadelszen, Deborah E. McFadden, Irene J. Barrett, Dagmar K. Kalousek, Wendy P. Robinson
DOI: 10.1016/s1701-2163(16)34239-6

Expectant management of pre-eclampsia remote from term: A structured review of maternal and perinatal outcomes
Hypertension in Pregnancy

Decidual NK Cells Alter In Vitro First Trimester Extravillous Cytotrophoblast Migration: A Role for IFN- 
The Journal of Immunology
Y. Hu, J. P. Dutz, C. D. MacCalman, P. Yong, R. Tan, P. von Dadelszen
DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.177.12.8522

The association between preeclampsia and placental trisomy 16 mosaicism
Prenatal Diagnosis
Paul J. Yong, Sylvie Langlois, Peter von Dadelszen, Wendy Robinson
DOI: 10.1002/pd.1534

Postnatal follow-up of prenatally diagnosed trisomy 16 mosaicism
Prenatal Diagnosis
Sylvie Langlois, Paul J. Yong, Siu Li Yong, Irene Barrett, Dagmar K. Kalousek, Peter Miny, Rita Exeler, Kathy Morris, Wendy P. Robinson
DOI: 10.1002/pd.1457

Clinical aspects, prenatal diagnosis, and pathogenesis of trisomy 16 mosaicism
Journal of Medical Genetics
P J Yong
DOI: 10.1136/jmg.40.3.175

Evidence for imprinting on chromosome 16: The effect of uniparental disomy on the outcome of mosaic trisomy 16 pregnancies
American Journal of Medical Genetics
P.J. Yong, S.A. Marion, I.J. Barrett, D.K. Kalousek, W.P. Robinson
DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.10702

16 The evolution of gene duplicates
Homology Effects
DOI: 10.1016/s0065-2660(02)46017-8


Current Projects
Pathophysiology of deep endometriosis: Deep invasive endometriosis is an invasive type of endometriosis that leads to deep dyspareunia and painful bowel movements (dyschezia). I am exploring the cellular and genetic mechanisms behind this invasive form of endometriosis.

Current Projects
Local neurogenesis and deep dyspareunia in endometriosis: I am studying the role of local nerve growth in the pelvis (the pouch of Douglas and uterosacral ligaments) as a cause of deep dyspareunia in endometriosis.

Current Projects
Clinical predictors of deep dyspareunia in endometriosis: Using a prospective database that I developed, I am investigating the variables from history, validated questionnaires, physical examination, and surgical findings, that are associated with deep dyspareunia (and other pain) in endometriosis.


CIHR Operating Grant (2015-2018) ($282,000)

CFI John Evans Leaders Fund (2015-2016) ($312,500 with matching funds)

CIHR Operating Grant Priority Announcement (2014-2015) ($100,000)

Honours & Awards

Best abstract in pelvic pain. AAGL Global Congress, Vancouver, BC, October 2014.(Presented by trainee)

Best oral presentation (Gynaecology), Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) Annual Meeting, Niagrara Falls, ON, June 2014.

Research Group Members

Fahad Alotaibi
Heather Noga, Research Coordinator
Natasha Orr, Masters of Science in Reproductive and Developmental Sciences
Kate Wahl