Overview

Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among Canadians and kills more children and young people than all other causes combined. The cost of injury is tremendous, estimated at some $19.6 billion annually in Canada. Injury prevention offers one of the most promising ways of reducing deaths, hospitalizations and related health care costs.

Injury often takes a back seat to less serious health concerns, because people believe that injuries are "accidents" or "fate," – an inevitable part of life –

and can neither be predicted nor prevented. Most injuries, however, have distinct patterns and are, therefore, predictable and preventable. Where good prevention efforts have been introduced, there have been significant reductions in disability and loss of life, such as with mandatory seat belt and child passenger restraint laws.

BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit (BCIRPU) conducts a comprehensive program of injury surveillance and research that contributes to improved understanding and prevention of injury. BCIRPU is a leader in the development of evidence-based prevention strategies, and has a solid reputation among the provincial, national and international injury prevention communities.

Publications

Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Samar Al-Hajj, Brian Fisher, Jennifer Smith, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14091056
09/2017

The Canadian Atlas of Child and Youth Injury: Mobilizing Injury Surveillance Data to Launch a National Knowledge Translation Tool
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ian Pike, Jennifer Smith, Samar Al-Hajj, Pamela Fuselli, Alison Macpherson
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14090982
08/2017

Applying the health action process approach to bicycle helmet use and evaluating a social marketing campaign
Injury Prevention
Florian M Karl, Jennifer Smith, Shannon Piedt, Kate Turcotte, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2017-042399
08/2017

The online concussion awareness training tool (catt)
British Journal of Sports Medicine
Shelina Babul, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-097270.187
05/2017

Perceptions of injury risk associated with booster seats and seatbelts: the ejection stereotype hypothesis
Hypothesis
Takuro Ishikawa and Andy Jiang and Mariana Brussoni and Valerie Reyna and Rebecca Weldon and Beth Bruce and Ian Pike
DOI: 10.5779/hypothesis.v14i1.455
04/2017

Social marketing to reduce preventable injuries in BC, Canada
Injury Prevention
Ian Pike and Shannon Piedt and Kevin Lafreniere
DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2016-042156.337
09/2016

Development and Validation of the Bicultural Youth Acculturation Questionnaire
PLOS ONE
Atif Kukaswadia, Ian Janssen, William Pickett, Jasmine Bajwa, Katholiki Georgiades, Richard N. Lalonde, Elizabeth C. Quon, Saba Safdar, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161048
08/2016

Establishing an injury indicator for severe paediatric injury
Injury Prevention
Ian Pike, Mina Khalil, Natalie L Yanchar, Hala Tamim, Avery B Nathens, Alison K Macpherson
DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2016-042028
08/2016

Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Linda Rothman, Ian Pike, Kathy Belton, Lise Olsen, Pam Fuselli, Alison Macpherson
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph13070656
07/2016

Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001–2009
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ofer Amram, Blake Walker, Nadine Schuurman, Ian Pike, Natalie Yanchar
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph13070651
07/2016

Understanding clusters of risk factors across different environmental and social contexts for the prediction of injuries among Canadian youth
Injury
K. Russell, C. Davison, N. King, I. Pike, W. Pickett
DOI: 10.1016/j.injury.2015.11.030
05/2016

Assessing access to paediatric trauma centres in Canada, and the impact of the golden hour on length of stay at the hospital: an observational study
BMJ Open
Ofer Amram, Nadine Schuurman, Ian Pike, Michael Friger, Natalie L Yanchar
DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010274
01/2016

Fatal injuries in real world crashes: regional patterns in youth driver and motorcyclist collision deaths in British Columbia, 2004-2012
BC Medical Journal
2016

Reprint of “Media reporting of traffic legislation changes in British Columbia (2010)”
Accident Analysis & Prevention
Jeffrey R. Brubacher, Ediweera Desapriya, Herbert Chan, Yamesha Ranatunga, Rahana Harjee, Shannon Erdelyi, Mark Asbridge, Roy Purssell, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.11.005
2016

Use of geographic information systems to assess the error associated with the use of place of residence in injury research
Injury Epidemiology
Ofer Amram, Nadine Schuurman, Natalie L. Yanchar, Ian Pike, Michael Friger, Donald Griesdale
DOI: 10.1186/s40621-015-0059-y
11/2015

Media reporting of traffic legislation changes in British Columbia (2010)
Accident Analysis & Prevention
Jeffrey R. Brubacher, Ediweera Desapriya, Herbert Chan, Yamesha Ranatunga, Rahana Harjee, Shannon Erdelyi, Mark Asbridge, Roy Purssell, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2015.05.022
09/2015

Is it safe in numbers?
Injury Prevention
Nicola Christie, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2015-041687
07/2015

An evaluation of evidence-based paediatric injury prevention policies across Canada
BMC Public Health
Alison K. Macpherson, Mariana Brussoni, Pamela Fuselli, Tara Middaugh-Bonney, Shannon Piedt, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-1986-9
07/2015

70 Preventing adverse concussion outcomes: the online concussion awareness training toolkit
Injury Prevention
Shelina Babul, Kate Turcotte, Wilson Luong, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2015-041654.70
04/2015

55 Preventable: the effects of a social marketing campaign to reduce preventable injuries in BC, Canada
Injury Prevention
Ian Pike, Kevin Lafreniere
DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2015-041654.55
04/2015

Understanding clusters of risk factors across different physical contexts for the prediction of injuries among canadian youth
Injury Prevention
Kelly Russell and Colleen Davison and Nathan King and Ian Pike and William Pickett
DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2015-041654.9
04/2015

Indigenous ethnicity as a social determinant of exposure to riskier modes of transport: A survey study in Taiwan
Journal of Transport & Health
Stephen W. Pan, Chun-Tsai Hsu, Mariana Brussoni, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1016/j.jth.2015.09.003
2015

Socio Economic Status and Traumatic Brain Injury amongst Pediatric Populations: A Spatial Analysis in Greater Vancouver
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ofer Amram, Nadine Schuurman, Ian Pike, Natalie Yanchar, Michael Friger, Paul McBeth, Donald Griesdale
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph121215009
2015

Youth injury prevention in Canada: use of the Delphi method to develop recommendations
BMC Public Health
Ian Pike, Shannon Piedt, Colleen M. Davison, Kelly Russell, Alison K. Macpherson, William Pickett
DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2600-x
2015

Reduction in Fatalities, Ambulance Calls, and Hospital Admissions for Road Trauma After Implementation of New Traffic Laws
American Journal of Public Health
Jeffrey R. Brubacher, Herbert Chan, Penelope Brasher, Shannon Erdelyi, Edi Desapriya, Mark Asbridge, Roy Purssell, Scott Macdonald, Nadine Schuurman, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.2105/ajph.2014.302068
10/2014

A Systematic Review of Community Interventions to Improve Aboriginal Child Passenger Safety
American Journal of Public Health
Takuro Ishikawa, Eugenia Oudie, Ediriweera Desapriya, Kate Turcotte, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.2105/ajph.2013.301683
06/2014

Vision screening of older drivers for preventing road traffic injuries and fatalities
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ediriweera Desapriya, Rahana Harjee, Jeffrey Brubacher, Herbert Chan, D Sesath Hewapathirane, Sayed Subzwari, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1002/14651858.cd006252.pub4
02/2014

Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion?
Injury Prevention
Mariana Brussoni, Sara Brunelle, Ian Pike, Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter, Susan Herrington, Heather Turner, Scott Belair, Louise Logan, Pamela Fuselli, David J Ball
DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2014-041241
2014

Evaluating the benefits of second-eye cataract surgery among the elderly
Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery
Takuro Ishikawa, Ediriweera Desapriya, Maneesh Puri, John M. Kerr, D. Sesath Hewapathirane, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2013.08.033
10/2013

Central Visual Field Loss and Driving
JAMA Ophthalmology
Ediriweera Desapriya, D. Sesath Hewapathirane, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.434
06/2013

Visual Analytics for Public Health: Supporting Knowledge Construction and Decision-Making
2013 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences
Samar Al-Hajj, Ian Pike, Bernhard Riecke, Brian Fisher
DOI: 10.1109/hicss.2013.599
01/2013

We need evidence based tools to identify medically at risk drivers
BMJ
E. Desapriya, Y. Ranatunga, I. Pike
DOI: 10.1136/bmj.e7087
10/2012

Vulnerable Child Pedestrians in Rapidly Motorizing Developing Countries
Journal of Emergency Nursing
Ediriweera Desapriya, Kate Turcotte, Eshani Fernando, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1016/j.jen.2012.05.026
09/2012

Using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition, Codes to Estimate Abusive Head Trauma in Children
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Takeo Fujiwara, Ronald G. Barr, Rollin F. Brant, Fahra Rajabali, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.04.028
08/2012

Risky Play and Children’s Safety: Balancing Priorities for Optimal Child Development
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mariana Brussoni, Lise L. Olsen, Ian Pike, David A. Sleet
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9093134
08/2012

Child Occupants and Side-Impact Crashes: Commentary
Journal of Emergency Nursing
Ediriweera Desapriya, Lionel Samayawardhena, Aruna Somasiri, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1016/j.jen.2011.03.012
07/2011

Impact of the 1994 Alcohol Production and Sales Deregulation Policy on Traffic Crashes and Fatalities in Japan
Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health
Ediriweera Desapriya, Takeo Fujiwara, Namrata Dutt, Neil Arason, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1177/1010539511404398
04/2011

Injury prevention in child death review: child pedestrian fatalities
Injury Prevention
E. Desapriya, M. Sones, T. Ramanzin, S. Weinstein, G. Scime, I. Pike
DOI: 10.1136/ip.2010.026914
01/2011

Does Obesity Increase the Risk of Injury or Mortality in Motor Vehicle Crashes? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health
Ediriweera Desapriya, Scime Giulia, Sayed Subzwari, Dinithi C. Peiris, Kate Turcotte, Ian Pike, Deborah Sasges, D. Sesath Hewapathirane
DOI: 10.1177/1010539511430720
2011

Is Blood Alcohol Level a Good Predictor for Injury Severity Outcomes in Motor Vehicle Crash Victims?
Emergency Medicine International
Bikaramjit Mann, Ediriweera Desapriya, Takeo Fujiwara, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1155/2011/616323
2011

Injury rates in Canadian Ontario first nation communities
Injury Prevention
A. Macpherson and D. Jones-Keeshig and I. Pike
DOI: 10.1136/ip.2010.029215.910
09/2010

Youth injuries in British Columbia: type, settings, treatment and costs, 2003–2007
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
Bonnie Leadbeater, Shelina Babul, Mikael Jansson, Giulia Scime, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1080/17457300903564561
06/2010

Developing injury indicators for Canadian children and youth: a modified-Delphi approach
Injury Prevention
I. Pike, S. Piedt, L. Warda, N. Yanchar, C. Macarthur, S. Babul, A. K. Macpherson
DOI: 10.1136/ip.2009.025007
06/2010

Action indicators for injury prevention
Injury Prevention
J. M. MacKay, A. K. Macpherson, I. Pike, J. Vincenten, R. McClure
DOI: 10.1136/ip.2008.021444
06/2010

Comparison of On-Reserve Road Versus Off-Reserve Road Motor Vehicle Crashes in Saskatchewan, CanadaA Case Control Study
Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health
Ediriweera Desapriya, Takeo Fujiwara, Pamela Verma, Shelina Babul, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1177/1010539510361787
05/2010

Vision improvement and reduction in falls after expedited cataract surgery
Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery
Ediriweera Desapriya, Sayed Subzwari, Giulia Scime-Beltrano, Lionel A. Samayawardhena, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2009.07.032
01/2010

Do Light Truck Vehicles (LTV) Impose Greater Risk of Pedestrian Injury Than Passenger Cars? A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review
Traffic Injury Prevention
E. Desapriya, S. Subzwari, D. Sasges, A. Basic, A. Alidina, K. Turcotte, I. Pike
DOI: 10.1080/15389580903390623
01/2010

Smoking Inside Vehicles Should Be Banned Globally
American Journal of Public Health
Ediriweera Desapriya and Kate Turcotte and Sayed Subzwari and Ian Pike
DOI: 10.2105/ajph.2009.160127
07/2009

Globally we need more comprehensive vision-screening strategies
British Journal of Ophthalmology
E Desapriya, S Subzwari, I Pike
DOI: 10.1136/bjo.2008.155986
05/2009

Prevention of baby-walker-related injury
The Lancet
Ediriweera Desapriya, Giulia Scime, Sayed Subzwari, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(09)60201-4
02/2009

Are 1994 alcohol production and the sales deregulation policy in Japan associated with increased road traffic fatalities among adult and teenage males and females in Japan?
Japanese Journal of Alcohol Studies & Drug Dependence
2009

Comparison of motor vehicle collision and non-motor vehicle collisions related child restraint seat injuries in British Columbia: 1997-2002
African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention
E Desapriya, A Basic, I Pike
DOI: 10.4314/asp.v6i1.31651
11/2008

Effectiveness of cataract surgery in reducing driving-related difficulties: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Injury Prevention
S Subzwari, E Desapriya, G Scime, S Babul, K Jivani, I Pike
DOI: 10.1136/ip.2007.017830
10/2008

The appropriate and inappropriate use of child restraint seats in Manitoba
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
John Blair, Angeliki Perdios, Shelina Babul, Kevin Young, Janice Beckles, Ian Pike, Peter Cripton, Debbie Sasges, Krishore Mulpuri, Ediriweera Desapriya
DOI: 10.1080/17457300802340980
09/2008

Compulsory child restraint seat law and motor vehicle child occupant deaths and injuries in Japan 1994–2005
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
E. Desapriya, T. Fujiwara, G. Scime, S. Babul, I. Pike
DOI: 10.1080/17457300802080602
06/2008

Conventional vision screening tests and older driver motor vehicle crash prevention
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
E. Desapriya, S. Subzwari, T. Fujiwara, I. Pike
DOI: 10.1080/17457300802150926
06/2008

Cost effectiveness of cataract surgery
British Journal of Ophthalmology
E Desapriya, G Scime, I Pike, P Joshi, S Subzwari
DOI: 10.1136/bjo.2007.131821
04/2008

The safety of older drivers
Canadian Medical Association Journal
E. Desapriya, I. Pike, G. Scime, S. S. MHSc MBBS
DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.1070138
11/2007

Impact of lowering the legal blood alcohol concentration limit to 0.03 on male, female and teenage drivers involved alcohol-related crashes in Japan
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
E. Desapriya, I. Pike, S. Subzwari, G. Scime, S. Shimizu
DOI: 10.1080/17457300701440634
09/2007

Analysis of paediatric injuries related to child restraint seats: Are children at higher risk of injury outside the vehicle than inside?
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
E. B. R. Desapriya, I. Pike, A. Singhal
DOI: 10.1080/17457300701577252
09/2007

Deterrent to Healthy Lifestyles in Our Communities
PEDIATRICS
E. B.R. Desapriya, I. Pike, A. Basic, S. Subzwari
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-0370
05/2007

Sport utility vehicles and vulnerable road users
American Journal of Public Health
Ediriweera Desapriya and Ian Pike and Kate Turcotte
DOI: 10.2105/ajph.2006.107375
04/2007

Effects of Graduated Driver Licensing on Fatalities in 16-Year-Olds
PEDIATRICS
E. Desapriya, P. Joshi, I. Pike
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-2165
11/2006

Promotion of traditional lifestyles
Canadian Medical Association Journal
E. Desapriya, I. Pike
DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.1060104
10/2006

Injury-related mortality and indigenous people
The Lancet
E Desapriya, I Pike, S Subzwari
DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(06)69189-7
08/2006

Severity of alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes in British Columbia: case – control study
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
E. Desapriya, I. Pike, P. Raina
DOI: 10.1080/17457300500172685
06/2006

Public attitudes, epidemiology and consequences of drinking and driving in British Columbia
IATSS Research
E. DESAPRIYA and I. PIKE and S. BABUL
DOI: 10.1016/s0386-1112(14)60160-6
2006

The risk of injury and vehicle damage in vehicle mismatched crashes
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
Ediriweera Desapriya, Mary Chipman, Pamela Joshi, Ian Pike
DOI: 10.1080/1566097042000265782
09/2005

The risk of injury and vehicle damage severity in vehicle mismatched side impact crashed in British Columbia
IATSS Research
Ediriweera DESAPRIYA and Ian PIKE and Jacqueline KINNEY
DOI: 10.1016/s0386-1112(14)60134-5
2005

Second hand smoke (SHS) and child healthNon-Refereed
Pediatrics
2005

Child motor vehicle occupant and pedestrian casualties before and after enactment of Child Restraint Seats Legislation in Japan
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
E. B. R. Desapriya, Nobutada Iwase, Ian Pike, Mariana Brussoni, Michael Papsdorf
DOI: 10.1080/156609704/233/289797
2004

THE INJURY SEVERITY RATE DIFFERENCES IN PASSENGER CARS AND PICK UP TRUCKS RELATED TWO VEHICLE INVOLVED MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA
IATSS Research
E.B.R. DESAPRIYA, I. PIKE, M. BRUSSONI, G. HAN
DOI: 10.1016/s0386-1112(14)60107-2
2004

The Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Related Work and Personal Factors Among Diagnostic Medical Sonographers
Journal of Healthcare Safety, Compliance and Infection Control
1999

The Prevalence of Musculoskeleta Disorders Among Diagnostic Medical Sonograhers
Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography
Ian Pike and Andre Russo and Jonathan Berkowitz and Joan P. Baker and Vickie A. Lessoway
DOI: 10.1177/875647939701300501
1997

Gender Specific Trends in Fitness and Anthropometric Parameters in a Selected Saskatchewan Sample, Aged 65–75 Years
Canadian Journal on Aging / La Revue canadienne du vieillissement
Robert G. McCulloch, Donald J. Clark, Ian Pike, Yvonne M. Slobodian
DOI: 10.1017/s071498080000653x
01/1994

weight management attitudes and behaviours in young elite athletes
CAHPER/ACSEPL Research Supplement
1994

Research

EDUCATION & KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER
Example: The Development of a Web Portal and Injury Indicator Dashboard to Translate Knowledge to Injury Prevention Policy and Practice
A dashboard is defined as a graphical user interface that organizes and presents information in a format that is easy to read and interpret. In its simplest form, the child and youth injury indicator dashboard is a visual representation designed to provide salient information and to assess different aspects of the performance of the child and youth injury prevention system in Canada, allowing practitioners, policy makers and researchers to make timely decisions with regard to child and youth injury prevention improvements, and to assess and monitor those decisions over time. The dashboard will be developed as part of a child and youth injury web portal providing links to child and youth injury prevention evidence and tools.

Example: Social Marketing to Prevent Injury
A strategic alliance with The Community Against Preventable Injuries has been developed to develop and implement social marketing campaigns to prevent serious injury in BC. This project’s initial objectives are to: 1) establish an overall injury prevention "brand" in BC; 2) engage multiple partners with emphasis on private sector leadership; 3) establish a critical mass necessary to transform societal attitudes and behaviors; and, 4) strategic implementation of campaigns to align with other injury prevention initiatives in BC.

RESEARCH
Example: Developing Injury Indicators for Canadian Children and Youth, and First Nations & Inuit Children and Youth
A multidisciplinary, cross-pillar research team has identified 34 national injury indicators for children and youth. Current research is focused on demonstrating the utility of a sub-set of policy indicators. Future grant applications will allow for the validation and uptake of the remaining indicators, as well as the development of a web-based portal and indicators dashboard. Two important extensions of this project has been: 1) the development of 27 injury indicators for First Nations and Inuit children and youth, and 2) the start of the development of a deprivation index in order to examine the relationship between injury and the social circumstances in which children and youth live.

Example: Safe Play Spaces - Risky Play and Healthy Child Development
The design of safe playgrounds and play spaces is an important consideration that must be balanced with healthy child development that includes exposure to and management of risk by the child. Some authors have gone so far as to characterize today’s play spaces as so safe that they lead to a ‘risk deficit disorder’ and that it is time to reintroduce risk exposure as a necessary element of child play. For many injury prevention professionals, whose effort is to prevent all injuries, this is challenging and creates considerable concern. The question at hand is whether play spaces can be designed to include ‘healthy risk exposure’ while ensuring the prevention of serious injuries. Can we design play spaces to be as safe as necessary, not as safe as possible?

Honours & Awards

CFRI Special Salary Award, Child and Family Research Institute (2008 - present)

BCRICWH Investigatorship Award, Child and Family Research Institute (2004 - present)

Research Group Members

Atousa Zargaran, Researcher/BCIRPU
Dian Leung
Shelina Babul, Investigator, Djavad Mowafaghian Center for Brain Health, University of British Columbia, Investigator, BC Children's Hospital, Associate Director, Sports Injury Specialist, BC Injury Research & Prevention Unit, BC Children's Hospital
Fahra Rajabali
Kate Turcotte
Megan Oakey
Diana Samarakkody
Jennifer Smith
Rachel Ramsden, Research Assistant
Aygun Ibrahimova
Colleen Pawliuk
Alex Zheng
Emilie Beaulieu
Denise Beaton, Research Assistant/BCIRPU
Maureen Nolan, Researcher/BCIRPU
Reed Huber, Summer Student
Kyle Scoten, Summer Student
Mojgan Karbakhsh, PostDoc/BCIRPU
Samantha Bruin, Communications Coordinator
Aayushi Joshi, Student