Suggested references

Please note that this is not a comprehensive list.

Brachial Plexus Injuries

Coroneos CJ, Voineskos SH, Christakis MK, Thoma A, Bain JR, Brouwers MC; Canadian OBPI Working Group*. Obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI): Canada's national clinical practice guideline. BMJ Open. 2017;7(1):e014141.
*Verchere C. is a part of the Canadian OBPI Working Group.

Bellows D, Bucevska M, Verchere C. Coordination and balance in children with birth-related brachial plexus injury: A preliminary study. Physiother Can. 2015;67(2):105-112. 

Hale, H.B., Bae, D.S., Waters, P.M. (2010). Current concepts in the management of brachial plexus birth palsy. Journal of Hand Surgery (America ed.), 35(2), 322-331. PMID: 20141905

Bain, J.R., Dematteo, C., Gjertsen, D., & Hollenberg, R. (2009). Navigating the gray zone: a guideline for surgical decision making in obstetrical brachial plexus injuries. Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics, 3(3), 173-180. PMID: 19338462

Dunham, E. (2006). Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. Orthopaedic Nursing, 22(2), 106‐116. PMID: 12703394

Waters, P.M. (2005). Update on management of pediatric brachial plexus palsy. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, 25(1), 116‐126. PMID: 15614072

Sup-ER Protocol

Wong VCY, Balumuka D, Tuen YJ, et al. How Institution of the Sup-ER Protocol in a Clinic Changed Procedure Patterns in Upper Brachial Plexus (Erb's Type) Birth Injuries [published online ahead of print, 2023 Jul 15].Hand (N Y). 2023;15589447231184896.

Yefet L, Bellows D, Bucevska M, et al. Can the Sup-ER Protocol Decrease the Prevalence and Severity of Elbow Flexion Deformity in Brachial Plexus Birth Injuries?. Hand (N Y). 2023;18(1_suppl):28S-35S. doi:10.1177/15589447221093673 

Verchere C, Durlacher K, Bellows B. Management of Brachial Plexus Birth Injuries at British Columbia Children's Hospital. Semin Plast Surg. 2023;37(02):102-107. DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1767783

Yefet LS, Bellows D, Bucevska M, Courtemanche RJM, Durlacher K, Hynes S, Verchere CG. Shoulder rotation function following the Sup-ER protocol in children with brachial plexus injuries. HAND. 2022;17(3):549-557.

Durlacher K, Verchere C, & Zwicker J. Parents' experiences of splinting programs for babies with congenital limb anomalies. JPediatr Rehabil Med. 2015;8(3):207-217.

Durlacher K, Bellows D, Verchere C. Sup-ER orthosis: An innovative treatment for infants with birth related brachial plexus injury. JHT 2014;27(4): 335-40. PMID: 25042285

Verchere C, Durlacher K, Bellows D, Pike J, Bucevska M. An early shoulder repositioning program in birth-related brachial plexus injury: a pilot study of the Sup-ER protocol. Hand (N Y). 2014 Jun;9(2):187-95. PMID: 24839420


Walsh, S. (2010). Treatment of a brachial plexus injury using kinesiotape and exercise. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 26(7), 490-496. doi: 10.3109/09593980903578872. PMID: 20649498

Reymann, J. (1997). A brachial plexus taping protocol. OT Practice, 2(11), 28-31.

Constraint Induced Movement Therapy

Website: BC Pediatric Constraint Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT)

Functional Outcomes

Bellows D, Bucevska M, Verchere C. Coordination and Balance in Children with Birth-Related Brachial Plexus Injury: A Preliminary Study. Physiother Can 2014 Advance Online Article. DOI 10.3138/ptc.2013-77. PMID: 25931660

Ho, E.S. (2010). Measuring hand function in the young child. Journal of Hand Therapy, 23(3), 323-330. PMID: 20079605

Strombeck, C., Krumlinde‐Sundholm, L., Remahl, S. & Sefersen, T. (2007). Long‐term
follow‐up of children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy I: functional aspects.Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 49, 198‐203. PMID: 17355476

Curtis, C., Stephens, D., Clarke, H.M., & Andrews, D. J. (2002). The active movement scale: an evaluative tool for infants with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. Hand Surgery (American ed.), 27(3), 470‐478. PMID: 12015722


Ezaki, M., Malungpaishrope, K., Harrison, R., Mills, J., Oishi, S. Delgado, M., Bush, P. & Browne, R. (2010). OnabotulinumtoxinA injection as an adjunct in the treatment of posterior shoulder subluxation in neonatal brachial plexus palsy. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 92, 2171-2177. doi:10.2106/JBJS.I.00499. PMID: 20844159